So I bought a 2017 Tacoma a couple of months ago and saw something stuck to the windshield just to the right of the rearview mirror. It was a GoPro mount. I did a little googling and found out that Toyota started putting them in a year or so earlier. Kind of a stroke of genius I guess. The mount literally costs a dollar or two and encourages one to install a GoPro as a dash cam.
That's real cool and everything but there is one issue here. They provided no way to apply power to the GoPro which (in my case with the Hero 4 Silver) takes 5 volts through a mini USB connector.
So to use the GoPro you'd literally have to remove it and charge it nightly. Or you can hardwire it yourself which is not so difficult.
There are a million dash cam hardwire kits on line, some very inexpensive. Basically you wire them into a 12 volt source of power anywhere in the vehicle, and attach the black wire to ground. Just upstream from where you connect those wires is a little block which is a 12 volt to 5 volt converter. Then you simply snake the mini USB connector along the headliner to the GoPro.
I bought this kit from the DashCamstore.com. It is fairly ingenious as it plugs into the fuse block. You decide whether you want the camera powered all the time or not. I did not want constant power so I pulled the 10 amp fuse from the Windshield Washer and then you insert that fuse into the adapter shown below. Then you just plug that fuse adapter into the block. Next find a bolt on the car somewhere and attach the black ground wire.
Once you have power I suggest you test the cable BEFORE routing it. What a pain that would be to professionally route the cable just to find out it didn't work or something. On my Tacoma I popped off the SRS Airbag plastic cap right about where my label says "APillar". Under it is a 10 mm bolt head which then allows you to pull the plastic trim APillar out. In the lower left hand corner of your dash will be a hole. I ran a fish tape straight into that hole which came out near the passenger door or left foot kick panel.
Taped my USB cable end and pulled it back through. I neatly zip tied everything underneath and stowed it. From there you simply run the wire up along the wire bundle in the APillar making double damn sure you don't obstruct the airbag. Just follow the wire bundle. I zip tied my USB cable twice in there. From there you simply stuff the wire up under the headliner. It pushed up under there real easily and the headliner does not get mangled in any way, shape, or form. You can see the USB cable end sticking out in my photos. Then simply plug it in the GoPro.
I hadn't plugged mine in on the above photos as my GoPro only had a sealed case. You need a skeleton case like this (photo below). It allows for you to use the touch screen and plug it in. Just don't go surfing with it. Anyway the installation is super clean with just a few inches of wire showing from the headliner. I'm real pleased with how this whole project went.
Installing a dash cam with a permanent power source is EASY. Even though this was done in a Toyota Tacoma the steps are going to be essentially the same for any vehicle. Anyone can do it.
I'm a cord cutter. I have high speed internet and refuse to pay for the high cost of cable, especially since I don't watch TV much. So years ago I got Netflix, Hulu and an app called Sling which is basically cable TV streamed over high speed internet. Sling is pretty okay however they just recently dumped their Mac app and now you view Sling through Chrome browser. That in itself is okay but I liked the app however it had a propensity to crash a lot whether it was on Mac, or IOS on the iPad.
I do like that Sling also has an app on Apple TV. So for better or worse I've been a Sling user for several years and fairly happy. To be honest though I only watch a few TV shows. And those shows are on A&E, Discovery, History and Travel and sometimes I catch myself watching Nat Geo. That's it. Period. End of story. Here's the kicker. I LOVE the show Gold Rush but Sling dumped Discovery a while back. Philo has it so in reality while Sling has way more content, Philo has the stuff I really want.
So when Philo came along I was really, really happy because number one it has the stuff I want and almost none of the stuff I don't AND........it's cheaper. $16 a month. So I gave the 48 hour trial period a spin. And my first impression of it is that YOU MUST complete the 48 hour trial before you can buy it. You can't just sign up. I actually appreciate that because you can't just buy in and then complain about what you don't like.
Philo works about like Sling does, as far as I'm concerned there isn't a nickels worth of difference. Sling maybe has the more polished program guide though however to save money its not worth the extra money especially if you know the things you want to watch already. Here's Philo's guide below.
Ok. Here's my problem. I have an Apple TV with a Sling app. It's easy to navigate around in but Philo does NOT have an Apple TV app. Rats.
BUT, BUT, BUT......Philo works in a browser and I do have a Mac Mini hooked to the TV via HDMI. Hurray!
Wait, not so fast. The Mac Mini has no keyboard or mouse. I control it remotely from a Mac program called Remote Desktop. It's a VNC program basically. Sooooooo I log into the Mac Mini and open Philo in a browser and hit play on some show and ....................Wait for it................Rats.
It thinks I'm trying to take streaming video and stream it again within a VNC program and it just doesn't want to play. Rat farts.
Now what? Philo has a Roku app. I don't own a Roku..........I do now. $30 later I now have a Roku hooked to the TV. And the Philo app works. Great. But wait........
THERE'S NO GUIDE. Da fuq?
However, I am undeterred. All this is worth the effort. You can use your iPhone with a Roku app which acts as a remote to use a keyboard so you can easily pull searches in lieu of the missing guide.
Conclusion: While Philo has some limitations and you may need a Roku or Computer hooked directly to your TV unless you view on iPad or iPhone it is worth it due to the lower cost.
Well I finally went and lost my mind at 55 years old. After my daughter left to go to college rather than sit at home and have long, deep conversations with myself I bought a camper to hit the open road with. For various reasons, none of which have anything to do with a generator, I bought a Forest River Rockwood A122.
Great little pop up, hard sided camper. Even though I never camped in my life, I'm drawn to that lifestyle like a moth to the flame. Going out, seeing new places, meeting new people, living in the woods, albeit with an air conditioner, and heater and AM/FM Stereo and full kitchen.
Now most campgrounds have 30 amp electrical connectors which is what this trailer requires. You can run all your appliances at the same time easily with that and plug stuff in all over the place.
However, if you want to get away from the campground in what campers refer to as "boondocking" then by golly you need a power source. A lot of people slap a solar panel up on that nice tilted A frame which keeps the camper battery charged. The problem with that is that it is kind of a fair weather solution. If it were winter it might be okay because the onboard furnace is propane. So you're probably in good shape to run a few lights, but wanna charge your phone, watch TV, turn on the heat pump or air conditioner? Not gonna happen.......for long that is.
So plan B is to go get a generator. But there are generators, and there are inverter generators. Inverter generators produce a very clean Sine Wave which means they won’t kill your very sensitive electronic devices such as computers, cell phones, etc. So that is what we want since we don’t want to smoke check the nice thermostat or AM/FM Stereo in the camper along with our iPhones. In addition to clean power, when you are camping you need QUIET power. No point in communing with nature if there is 108 dB of generator sound cranking out 25’ from your bed.
Also realize that you should have some idea of how much power you need. My very small camper with a 10,000 BTU air conditioner / heat pump will not have nearly the demands of an enormous RV. 2000 watts of generator power is all I need if I am smoldering hot in the camper and I probably can just run the AC and charge a few devices and operate an LED light or two. Uhhhhh that’s all I do anyway in the camper. Anyway, don’t run out and buy this generator based on reading my blog and then get mad at me when it doesn’t power your mobile home that is as big as a real home. Use one of many of the internet generator load calculators to decide what you need and seek out the advice on the Internet Forums on the camper THAT YOU HAVE.
So as you begin to do your research on small, quiet, inverter generators the Honda EU2000i has no equal. It’s on the top of every list. On the lists it might not be on top of the reviewer will say something like “I loved it but it has no hour meter.......”. Well Mr. Reviewer didn’t read the manual because when you start the unit and the green power light comes on steady it means it has 0 to 100 hours on it. When it blinks once......100-200 hours, and so on and so forth. So while it isn’t precise..........THERE IS AN ACCOUNTING OF RUN TIME. My point being here is.............DO YOUR OWN RESEARCH IN ADDITION TO READING THAT OF OTHERS.
Here it is:
It goes about 46 lbs or so and it’s not very big. And when you pick it up it isn’t terrifically bulky either. It doesn’t make you walk like you have one leg in a splint as you lurch along with it. At 55 years old I was able to easily lift it up to the tailgate of my SR5 Toyota Tacoma which is up there a bit.
So I get it out of the box and add 13 ozs of 10W-30 oil and then almost a gallon of gas. It takes a couple pulls, probably because there has never been any gas in it before but starts easy. Subsequent starts after that are SUPER easy. You barely have to pull the cord. Operation is VERY quiet. Get more than a few feet away from it and it is barely a distraction, HOWEVER the larger the load, the louder it is. Remember that. Last night as I was giving it some run time I sat a laptop on the edge of my hot tub and watched some Netflix. The generator was about 15’ away and did not drown out the laptop sound.
This is an awesome little generator not just because it delivers clean power silently.........it also has a couple of tricks up its sleeve. For example with this battery charging cord there is a DC voltage out feature which acts as a battery charger. (Note the DC receptacle in the drawing below). You heard that right. This generator is a battery charger. Also it has parallel wiring ports so that you can hook another one of these together and double your wattage. Tie two together and you have 4000 starting watts of power. Of course these generators aren’t cheap, so two of them is a bit expensive but could be well worth it.
There are a couple of other nice features as well. It also has an "ECO Throttle" switch which reduces the engine speed as the load is reduced or disconnected. Most generators are just running..........same speed, same output. This will throttle down when you aren't pulling a big load which gives you two things:
- Reduced Sound
- Longer run time due to greater fuel efficiency.
Another great thing this generator does is to shut itself down if it sees a low oil condition. Nice.
And while you can tie two of them together the max output on the 110v sockets is 20 amps. Remember that the camper uses 30 amps? Honda sells a generator that is the Companion to this and in fact that is what they call it “EU2000i Companion”. It is almost the same generator except one of the output sockets is an RV ready 30 amp twist lock connector. Oh this just gets better all the time. Just note, however, that the Companion model does NOT have the DC output for charging batteries. To tie the two together you just need this parallel cable kit which costs about $40
Another great thing about having a Honda generator is that Honda generator engines have an almost unrivaled reputation and also Honda Service Centers are all over the place. I live in a very small town and there are 3 near here. Also the warranty on this generator is 3 years. That’s huge.
Now what don't I like about it? Well, not much, but there is one thing. Set a $900 generator down on the ground and it may grow legs and walk away. So you loop a bicycle lock or similar through the handle only to find that the handle is plastic and easily cut through. Honda sells a Theft deterrent kit which basically wraps the handle in a metal sleeve and then you lock it up with chain or cable. That's cool but it costs $40 or more.
So while the generators are awesome as can be if you want to parallel two together, be prepared to shell out $40 for cables, then a DC cable for charging the batteries is $11, then the theft deterrent...............well you get my drift. Dear Honda. This costs $900 if you shop hard and $1099 if you don't. For God's sakes put some accessories in the box. It doesn't even come with a container of oil in the box. Oh, almost forgot the $30 cover.
Still it's the best small inverter generator on planet earth. You are really getting a lot of generator and a lot of features. Also this generator is highly "hackable". People have done all kinds of things with these such as added panel lamps, magnetic oil dipsticks to pick up metal shavings in the pan, and the addition of hour meters. All that and probably a dozen other hacks. Oh, and it will run on propane as well with a (non-Honda) conversion kit.
Lastly here is a video of it in action. You can hear how quiet it is as I back off towards the end.
Make no bones about it. I am an audiophile (phool). Headphones are abundant and nowadays celebrities and artists slap their names on headphone brands and kids pay big bucks for them. Audiophools buy headphones that cost thousands! I'm not kidding. So what's a boy to do? In a sea of headphones which ones do you buy?
I suggest watching music videos for the answer. Let me clarify. Every artist nowadays slip a few scenes of themselves in the studio into their videos. Look at the headphones they are wearing. Look at the headphones the guy on the big board is wearing. Mind you these people are recording professionals and can wear whatever they want.
Sure, look hard enough and you can find any headphone you want. But pay attention to the headphones you continually see. There are three that you'll see pretty frequently.
My whole point here is that if these headphone are good enough for the top names in the recording industry they are good enough for you. All three cost less than $150 and can be had for less than that if you shop around or buy refurbished.
SONY MDR-7506 were introduced in 1991 and designed for professional studio use. Studios probably have dozens of sets of headphones and I guess if you own a studio you don't want dozens of sets of $1000 headphones. What are the qualities you want in a headphone? First of all they must sound good and the term studio pros use is "neutral" meaning they don't color the sound or make the highs too high or the lows too low. Second they must be built like a tank. "That's a wrap" and the headphones get taken off and tossed.
So ultimately sound pros asked the manufacturers, make us a neutral headphone that can take some abuse that SOUNDS GREAT. The older brother to the MDR-7506 is the Sony MDR V6
The Sony MDR-V6 were made from 1985 and were instant hits with the pro crowd. Sadly they were discontinued in 2013 or 2014 and for a while there was some chatter about Sony bringing them back. They can still be had brand new on Amazon. The world is still flooded with plenty of stock. They are some of the best headphones on the planet and can be had for less than $100.
Even though they are gone the MDR-7506 was generally touted as being just a tad better. That may be true but my go to headphones are, and will always be the Sony MDR-V6. I have two pair and one goes with me in the casket.
More and more these days when i'm watching music videos on YouTube I see the Audio-Technica ATH-M50x.
Depending on your personal preference these may be better than the Sony's. These are generally described by being MORE neutral then either of the Sony's and possibly have a little more critical acclaim than the Sony's.
They are a little heavier although maybe a bit more comfortable. They scream "built like a tank" and the sound is nothing short of amazing.
The M50x was introduced in 2014 and it is the little brother of the M50 which are also iconic headphones.
Yep, I own all three of these headphones and sadly many many more. These are really the only 3 that matter. I have owned and listened to many "high end" headphones but the reality is when I want to sit at home and drink coffee and listen to the tube headphone amp that I grab one of these three pairs of headphones, depending on my mood, or which pair is closest.
Don't spend $500 on Dr. Dre headphones. Before Dr. Dre (I'm not knocking him, he made a fortune doing this) sold headphones he was (is) a recording artist. Here are pics of him in the studio, pre-Beats, wearing, you guessed it, Sony MDR-V6 and ATH-M50
Not knocking the man........just saying.
If you wonder why I add in "and shit" on a lot of my web page titles watch Mr. Lahey on The Trailer Park Boys and you'll understand fully.
All day, every day three operational NOAA satellites are buzzing overhead transmitting data back to earth. Most of the pics you see on the nightly weather are from NOAA satellites. Anyone can download this data. It is an Automatic Picture Transmission (APT) signal that is somewhat easily decoded.
LET ME STATE FOR THE RECORD HERE THAT I'M DOING THIS THE HARD WAY. IF YOU HAVE A STATIONARY ANTENNA SUCH AS A QUADRIFILAR HELIX ANTENNA (QFH) IT WILL DO ALL OF THIS AUTOMAGICALLY IN A PROGRAM CALLED WXTOIMG. YOU DON'T EVEN HAVE TO BE THERE OR DO A THING.
This whole evolution for me is about understanding satellite orbits, azimuths, elevations, doppler shift, etc. Plus I'll say this about using a handheld antenna and doing this in the way I describe below...........You get better results! I think my grabs look as good as anyone's..........yeah there are some guys with stationary setups who crank out better stuff but ask them how much they spent.
What you need:
A laptop running Linux (or Windows, but I hate Windows)
An SDR dongle (any one will do) Try this one. I only picked it because it was pretty cheap. You can get these on eBay for a few bucks.
An antenna. You can make one for almost free but you need something tuned to about 137 MHz. I bought this one. The price is OUCH but if you want grabs like this, you'll pay the price.
Hurricane Irma and Jose, September 10th 2017
The software you need is all free. You need:
Sox install with sudo apt-get install sox from a command line in Linux
GPredict - This is optional but it shows you when the satellites are a comin'. If you look in the upper right corner it will tell you NOAA 18 is coming in 8 minutes and 22 seconds. It will also populate on that globe and show you where it comes into acquisition. North or Southbound. Then you have a rough idea where to point the antenna. Before GPredict will work for you, you have to set your location. (Same with WXtoIMG) Google up your latitude and longitude. You'll need it for both programs.
Before you grab the antenna open GQRX and set the frequency from information you get in GPredict.
Open GQRX and configure and select your SDR dongle here under the Device drop down. Your mileage may very depending on what device you bought. A generic dongle typically looks something like this and typically the defaults are okay. Click OK.
Now hit play on GQRX. There should be no signal until you get it locked in. Set your filter width to about 40K, your mode to Narrow FM and figure out where you are recording to. Mine just records to my Home Directory (/home/john). Notice the gray width around the red vertical line below the 5 in the picture below. That's not very wide and will be tough to see your signal. For this reason I use a FunCube Pro Dongle usually which has an input rate of 192000. If you look at the pic above you are at 1800000. Anyway because the FunCube Pro doesn't display as much bandwidth across the scale the signal looks huge and it's much easier to see. In GQRX you can use the Zoom feature under the FFT Settings tab.
Okay, now you're standing there like a goof pointing an antenna in the sky hopefully in the right direction and you should be hearing and seeing the signal soon. Again in my video below I have that huge signal I don't have to zoom in on. Make sure and hit the record button but only when you have a good static free signal. Try to keep the red vertical line exactly in the center and know that because of all number of things the frequency will never be dead on and you may even have to look around a bit to find it initially. Also once you do get centered on that signal due to a phenomenon known as "Doppler Shift" you may have to make some adjustments during the grab to keep it centered. The signal will drift a little on you.
A good pass lasts about 15 minutes but you're generally lucky if you get 10 to 12 minutes. Remember to resist the urge to record that static. Wait until the signal is strong to record audio. And bail out at the end of the grab before the signal starts deteriorating.
A few points about my video above. It is a couple years old and the GQRX interface looks SLIGHTLY different. On the video the record button has a red circle in it. On my pictures it's a gray button that says "REC". Nothing earth shattering, but different.
Trust me when I tell you that you need to do this a handful of times before you get the hang of it. If you nail it the first attempt.......You Da Man (or Da Woman). It's a little tricky to say the least especially since you have to follow the arc with the antenna keeping a good strong static free signal. Over time you will figure out where to point, how to twist the elements, etc. It's an acquired skill.
Now you have an audio file that must be processed. Open the directory where you saved the file and find it. Here's mine below. The file name is:
Or basically GQRX + Date + UTC Time + Frequency
Now lets convert that file by passing this command for sox to change the rate to 11025 Hz otherwise the file is useless to us. Notice after the file name I named it noaa30.wav. You could name it anything you want "noaarocks" your girlfriends name, 1234......whatever you want.
sox gqrx_20170910_122412_137914900.wav noaa30.wav rate 11025
Now you have a file that can be opened in WXtoIMG alas there is a problem. If you open it by File > Open Audio File the map overlay WILL BE WRONG.
Think about this. The positioning of the map is determined by what the time stamp on the file is. When I converted the file I gave it a brand new timestamp. The time at which I did the conversion, not the time at which I did the satellite audio grab. This is what happens. Pay particular attention to the Great Lakes. See the satellite capture of Lake Michigan? It's in freaking Indiana, Kentucky, and Tennessee. Whoops.
Go back to after you created the noaa30.wav file. Now lets transfer the time stamp from the original file to the new file. Do this:
touch -r gqrx_20170910_122412_137914900.wav noaa30.wav
Now it's all good. Hurricane Irma is exactly where she is supposed to be in the pic below. And Lake Michigan is where it is supposed to be as well (not depicted).
You grabbing satellites and shit.
First Hurricane Harvey, now Irma is on the way. Now is the time to pack the bug out bag. Here's a $62 item you shouldn't be without. The Baofeng BF-F8HP
Ok I know you're supposed to be a licensed HAM to use one of these, but you don't need a license to listen and let's face it......if your town is underwater the FCC isn't exactly going to rush right over and hand you a ticket for talking on one. I'm going to guess you'll get a pass.
Granted it is only an 8 watt radio and it covers the two bands that a Technician Class Ham Radio operator would talk on, the 2 meter and 70 centimeter bands. The joy of this is that when the internet goes out, and the cell phones crash Ham Radio has ALWAYS been the fallback for emergency communications. Also most localities have Ham Radio clubs which have something called repeaters. Your 8 watt radio can reach several miles then the repeater rebroadcasts your transmission. I routinely talk to people 50 or more miles away from me. Those people also manage emergency traffic.
This is just one more vital piece of equipment for when the defecation hits the rotating device. Also this radio has an FM band so you can listen to local radio as well but you can't transmit in that range. Here are the VHF and UHF ranges.
Now get a load of this. This may not work for you but look at the frequency range of my local emergency services. ALL OF THOSE (except one) are coverable by this radio.
You can add all of those stations to memory (or just the ones you want) and the BF-F8HP can scan through them. Think about what I am saying.
A $62 Police Scanner, Weather Radio, Ham Radio, and TRANSMITTER all rolled up into one. I'm not sure how you can NOT afford to have one of these in your emergency kit. Also with added software and a Programming Cable you can EASILY add repeater stations and program in channels. Buy the cable if you get one of these. You'll thank me.
You NEED this radio. Even if you aren't a HAM and can't legally transmit, you NEED this radio. Got a kid? Make them take the test to get a license. Costs $15 and takes some effort but not the end of the world. Heck I got a license. If I can do it, anyone can.
Interesting issue I encountered recently on my laptop running a new version of Linux Ubuntu 16.04.3 LTS. The SDRPlay RSP1 would not work when the RSP2 did. Both use the exact same driver and I have the latest build of SoapySDR and associated programs. Odd indeed.
First of all the procedure to get SDRPlay devices on Linux is kind of crazy. You first install the driver, then build like 6 different programs. The instructions are here.
Again the RSP2 works famously right out of the gate here. The RSP1.....not so much.
I figured out that I needed to blacklist the drivers and while I don't actually think I needed to blacklist all three.....it works. I probably should try them one or two at a time and figure out which one is actually working, but hey, ........it works. In a terminal type the following:
sudo nano /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist.conf
Now add the following by cut and paste:
Hit Ctrl +X then Y to save and enter to exit. You can reboot or reload modules.
Hey it works now.
And the drivers even work in GQRX. That's what I'm talking about! Just make sure the Device String is
The latest "darling" in the SDR world is the ADALM-PLUTO SDR which is a $99 receiver and transmitter and is quite hackable. It has a weird range of tuning which is 300 MHz to 3.8 GHz. What most SDR geeks won't tell you though is when they aren't actively signal hacking they are listening to FM Stereo. Trust me. Of course FM stereo is about 88-107 MHz so this simply won't do.
You can hack the Pluto SDR though to reach 70 MHz to 6 GHz. THAT'S HUGE! Then you could add an UpConverter to tune to the HF frequencies. So lets get to hacking. I'm doing this hack from a Mac. It can be done via Windows with a program called Putty very easily as well.
Plug in the Pluto and go to a terminal and type:
ls -l /dev/tty.*
Then type this making sure that you use the device that was discovered on your computer.
screen /dev/tty.usbmodem1414 96000
Should see this:
User name is: root
Password is: analog
Should see this:
Now type the following commands: (the # should already be there, just the text).
# fw_setenv attr_name compatible # fw_setenv attr_val ad9364 # pluto_reboot reset
That's it! Your Pluto is hacked! You can now listen to FM Stereo you lucky devils.
Now sadly the PlutoSDR doesn't play nice with any software except MATLAB (which is EXPENSIVE) and GNURadio (which is HARD). So someone has developed a way to get the PlutoSDR working with GQRX which is a great front end program. Here's the deal though, THEY LEAVE OUT IMPORTANT STEPS AND IT WILL NEVER WORK. Then the steps are too geeky. They have you building GNURadio from PyBOMBS (don't ask). And then building the drivers where they LEAVE OUT IMPORTANT STEPS, and then have you install GQRX from source.
This is done from a fresh install of Ubuntu that is updated with sudo apt-get update and sudo apt-get upgrade. First lets do a little preparatory work from the terminal.
sudo apt-get install git cmake rtl-sdr librtlsdr0 librtlsdr-dev miri-sdr libmirisdr0 libmirisdr-dev
Without that stuff above it just won't work. I found several guides on the internet and NONE OF THEM mention that stuff at all. While I appreciate the technical knowledge the geeks always assume we are as smart as they are and know all this stuff already. Or probably more accurately all this stuff was already installed on their system when they started working these hacks. Either way......I love 'em. Just saying.
Now get GQRX. Again I am starting with a fresh install of Ubuntu which has never had GQRX on it before. If you have GQRX you should remove it. Follow the directions here.
Now for GQRX
sudo add-apt-repository -y ppa:bladerf/bladerf sudo add-apt-repository -y ppa:ettusresearch/uhd sudo add-apt-repository -y ppa:myriadrf/drivers sudo add-apt-repository -y ppa:myriadrf/gnuradio sudo add-apt-repository -y ppa:gqrx/gqrx-sdr sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install gqrx-sdr gr-iio
Now that is done. Lets install the upstream driver for gr-osmosdr which has PlutoSDR included.
git clone https://github.com/csete/gr-osmosdr-gqrx cd gr-osmosdr-gqrx/ git checkout plutosdr mkdir build cd build/ cmake ../ make sudo make install sudo ldconfig
Now when you open GQRX and have your PlutoSDR plugged in it should show up. You Done Did It.
This way is SOOOO much easier than the other ways I found of doing this on the internet. Hope it helps someone. If you like it give it a share with my social media buttons. I don't think anyone has ever done that before. Just want to see if it works!
If you go online and Google a shootout vs. the Tecsun PL-880 (left) and the Tecsun PL-660 (right) you'll almost see the PL-660 come out on top, which is surprising since the PL-880 is the newer and more expensive version of the two.
Usually the shootout is based around Single Sideband (SSB) performance and the fact that the PL-660 has an Air Band (airplane/airport monitoring). At any rate, I tend to prefer the PL-880 and here's why:
First of all I seldom listen to SSB transmissions. I own multiple Software defined radios (SDR) that have excellent discrimination for listening to SSB transmissions. Same goes for Air Band. If I want to listen to Air Band I'll just go grab an SDR.
Also regarding the Air Band on the PL-660 there is no scanning on the Air Band. You either have to turn the tuning dial manually or KNOW what frequency you are listening for and manually input it. What the hell, man? The manually tuning is God awful slow. It would take you an hour and give you carpal tunnel syndrome to work your way through the band. Still, I guess it is a cool feature.
Okay so maybe this review is not for you. I bought this radio to be well , errrrr, a radio. It's primary function is ShortWave Listening (SWL). Both radios perform about the same in my estimation regarding signal capture and playback but there are some inherent differences. Here are some PL-660 observations.
- The PL-660 auto scan is SLOOOOOOOWWWW. Painfully slow.
- The PL-660 auto scan stops on every bit of static in some bands. It would take forever to work it's way around the whole spectrum.
- The PL-660 sounds pretty good.
- The PL-660 tuning knob feels kind of cheesy and moves with minimal progress.
- The PL-660 has a tuning meter that lets you see how strong the signal is.
- There is no Line Out on the PL-660. Cannot record to another device such as a computer.
Here are some PL-880 observations:
- The PL-880 auto scan is considerably faster.
- The PL-880 will seemingly auto skip bands which have high static. At least I think that's what it is doing.
- The PL-880 has no Air Band.
- The PL-880 SSB performance seems okay to me despite what others say about it. Maybe I'm not that picky.
- The last tiny element of the antenna feels like it is going to be easily broken off. Extra care must be taken.
- THERE IS A LINE OUT on the PL-880. THIS IS AN AWESOME FEATURE.
Regarding the line out feature of the PL-880........I discovered that most laptops these days DON'T have a Line In. File that under "You gotta be shitting me". Higher end laptops have them but your average every day ordinary laptop won't.
Fortunately there is a cheap cure.
But alas, all is not perfect in Line Out Land ™. The PL-880 has a hidden feature that lets you change the Line Out level because it is full bore maxed out. Imagine recording someone screaming into a microphone. Yeah it sounds like that. So you reduce the Line Out Level.........Well that works on every band but Short Wave, which oh by the way, IS WHAT I WANT TO RECORD. What were the firmware programmers thinking? All is not lost. Another few dollars fixes the problem. Buy one of these. Then you can manually reduce the line out recording volume before it gets into your sound card.
Audacity has a cool trick where you can set up voice activated recording (VOX) so lets say you were recording a Ham Radio conversation you'd get only the speaking and none of the empty space in between. A cool feature indeed.
Here's a pic of the Audacity setting that shows you how to turn on VOX. Once you click on where it is highlighted blue then you press the record button in Audacity. It will just sit there until voice is heard. (Yeah you may have to play around with the squelch or the sound activation level (the setting below VOX) but you'll figure it out.
Let's face it. There is a lot of cool stuff out there in ShortWave Land. Stuff that is worth recording sometimes. If this even remotely impresses you as a "feature to have" then you better get the PL-880 because the PL-660 doesn't do it. The Line Out is what seals the deal for me more than anything else at all. Also you could Line Out to stereo speakers or something as well. Mono - eh - mono is all you get with the PL-660
Ultimately they are both great radios on AM/FM/SW. Air Band is cool but not a deal breaker for me. Ditto with SSB stuff. Both radios sound okay but, hey, they are both little bedside radios. Both come with 20' long, long wire antennas for SW reception. What a great addition that is to both radios.
What both radios are MISSING though is an adapter for hooking up an external antenna. The included 20' wire antenna has a 1/8th plug on it. No other HAM radio antenna in the world comes with a 1/8th inch connector. You need an adapter like this:
1/8th inch connector to Coaxial Type F
You can't go wrong with either radio but I lean heavily towards the PL-880.
When I was a kid, probably around 12 years old or so I was into the CB radio craze. My mom and dad got me a Lafayette Tube CB and dad installed an antenna on the house for me and ran the coax inside. Can't say I wasn't supported well!
From there one of dad's friends gave me a tube (Probably a Collins) Short Wave radio. I used to sit up spinning that big dial seeing what I could hear. Back in those days short wave was alive and hopping. It still kind of is but nothing like those days. Oh the things you could hear. Just an awesome experience for a kid. Sooooooo badly I wanted a HAM radio license and I'm not sure why I never got one. Mom and dad surely would have supported that as well. When I joined the Navy I wanted one.......when I became a father I wanted one........my whole life I have wanted a HAM radio license. It has ALWAYS been in the back of my mind and on my "To Do" list.
Well I am happy to report that the little boy of 12 who is now a 54 year old man finally got a HAM radio license. I took my test today, Saturday August 19th, 2017 and passed it the first go around.
And I'm as proud as can be. The test was no joke. I studied for weeks. Being an electronics tech rep really helped me nail a portion of it but much of the test had to do with rules and regulations, frequency conversions, what meter band is what frequency, antenna theory, modulation, wavelength. Like I said the test was no joke.
Now I'm not going to tell you I'm special for passing the HAM radio test......I'm not. Tons of people have done it before me. It's totally doable. But it is something you have to work for and earn. And that's what feels good about it.
In a day and age where society makes sure nobody fails and everybody gets a trophy it is a breath of fresh air to be given a test by several 60 to 70 year old guys, on paper, where multiple people verify the test score and it IS POSSIBLE TO FAIL. And it costs money to FAIL. $15. Ahhhhhh the old days and the old America that I long for.
And it is one less piece of unfinished business for a guy rapidly approaching senior citizen status.
I did it.
Recently rediscovered an old love of mine. Short Wave Listening (SWL). I have many SDR radios which are technically superior because they have that big old computer behind them allowing you to do more. Also software is fluid, allowing you to do many different things or use specific pieces of software for specific tasks.
Still, there are times when a radio by the bedside is what you need. Or for casual listening while on travel in the hotel room. Or tuning into that cool frequency you found with the strong signal thereby freeing up your computer for some other important task.
Here's another thing to ponder. An SDR plugged into the computer, using software only you are familiar with, hooked to an antenna only you know how to position is not intuitive to other members of the household. From a sheer emergency or preparedness situation any family member including children can operate a radio.
So now that I've convinced you that you need a radio.............Here's the one I got. The Tecsun PL-880. If you google up "best shortwave radio" on almost every list you will find the PL-880. As a matter of fact you will find it at the top of almost every list.
Again if you are looking for a hardcore technical review, you have come to the wrong website. I'm a regular guy who uses regular items and records regular observations. Here's my first observation:
Despite all the buttons and dials it is a pretty intuitive radio to use. You can figure it out pretty quickly. I particularly like the Scan button (top row, far right). It will scan backwards too if you give the dial a slight turn in the backwards direction first and then push the scan button, consequently that works in the forwards direction as well.
When reversing the scan though the scan arrows still point to the right which threw me for a loop for a minute or two. Wish those arrows would point the other way for a quick indication of direction of scan.
As it is you have to watch the numbers roll and it takes a half second or so to see which way they are rolling. Once or twice I caught myself scrolling in the unintended direction.
The radio comes with a 20' flat wire short wave antenna which is cool however the whip antenna worked just as well indoors as far as I was concerned. I'm sure that antenna would work much better stretched out flat on the ground outside. Speaking of antennas I have a 40 meter band dipole antenna in the back yard and I'd sure like to utilize it however the plug for the antenna is a 1/8th inch (probably 3.5mm, made in China) jack. It sure would have been nice to have an adapter come with the $159 radio. Wink, wink, hint, hint.
You can buy one of these adapters from Amazon here. It is a 1/8th to F Type Coaxial.
I can't stress enough how much more impressed I'd have been with this radio had an adapter been included. Yeah, it's not a deal breaker but it seems like a no-brainer.
Can't find one of these that is 1/8th to SMA. It's probably out there, just that I can't find it.
What else is cool? The carrying case.
My only beef with the carrying case is that if you put the included charging cable in there (the radio has a rechargeable battery) it will distort the case if it even fits at all. With just the radio in there it is a sleek, and tight fit.
And speaking of charging the battery............the cable that comes with the radio is a USB cable. There is no brick. You would have to charge off of a computer or in my case my home has those fancy electrical outlets that have USB ports in them in almost every room. I can plug the radio right into the wall. Sure you can pick up a brick for next to nothing and you probably have 5 already laying around that you don't even remember what they are for.
Still. It's slightly incomplete but again not even close to being a deal breaker.
You can download a manual from here.
Also there are hidden features. Some claim they are awesome hidden features, others claim they are crappy or experimental so Tecsun never put them in the manual. Either way, they are there. Here's a cool chart someone made of them.
As far as the radio goes...........from a technical standpoint.......I'm happy. It's a fine piece of hardware that is pretty intuitive to use despite all the buttons and knobs. I compared it to my old Grundig S350 and while the S350 held its own, the PL-880 had better sound, sensitivity, selectivity, features, etc. I love my old S350 but the PL-880 is better, smaller, lighter, better looking, etc.
The only complaints I had are that for $159 I'd love an antenna adapter and a power brick. Even if I never used the power brick I'd like to see it there, if not for me but for others.
If you are an SWL 'er, who travels or doesn't want a computer with an SDR and a coax across your lap in bed all the time, or you want a good radio for the family to use in a pinch...........look no further.
Did you know a lot of people still used pagers? I had no clue. Did you know that all that pager traffic and all those messages are sent unencrypted and can be easily decoded? All you need for hardware is a $10 USB SDR radio stick with a cheap indoor whip antenna.
NOTE: Reading pager traffic is NOT against the law, however retransmitting it or acting on any information you learn from it is. Decode for good. Not evil.
And much like any other Linux techie project I've ever done following the directions somewhere else DIDN'T WORK. Oh, it mostly worked but something is always missing. This page is for the first timer trying to figure this out. And for me to recreate this once I screw it up or my computer dies.
Doing this on Windows is easiest and the directions I found here DID WORK. This will be a tutorial on Ubuntu (Or LinuxMint) Again most everything worked but the actual decoding process didn't until I changed a thing or two. Also one major step was left out that almost caused this to epic fail for me. YMMV. Depends on the Decoder your system is using.
First of all you need a few dependencies on Linux. Open a terminal and do this. (one command per line).
sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install git cmake build-essential libusb-1.0 libusb-1.0-0-dev qt4-qmake libpulse-dev libx11-dev sox
After that installs lets get gqrx
sudo add-apt-repository -y ppa:bladerf/bladerf sudo add-apt-repository -y ppa:ettusresearch/uhd sudo add-apt-repository -y ppa:myriadrf/drivers sudo add-apt-repository -y ppa:myriadrf/gnuradio sudo add-apt-repository -y ppa:gqrx/gqrx-sdr sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install gqrx-sdr
You have to be able to pipe the audio to multimon-ng so depending on your system you may need this. (I didn't need it).
sudo apt-get install pavucontrol
Now you need rtf-sdr
git clone git://git.osmocom.org/rtl-sdr.git cd rtl-sdr/ mkdir build cd build cmake ../ make sudo make install sudo ldconfig
Lastly we get multimon-ng
git clone https://github.com/EliasOenal/multimon-ng.git cd multimon-ng mkdir build cd build qmake ../multimon-ng.pro make sudo make install
Almost there. Now open GQRX and find a pager signal. Set the settings on the right hand side the same as mine (obviously your frequency may be different) and be sure and push the UDP button in. No UDP streaming, no pager traffic.
Okay we have a good signal and we are streaming it over port 7355 on UDP. Time to decode.
In a terminal type the following command (or cut and paste it, its a doozy). make sure it is all one one line and one command as well.
nc -l -u 7355 | sox -r 48000 -t raw -b 16 -c 1 -e signed-integer /dev/stdin -r 22050 -t raw -b 16 -c 1 -e signed-integer - | multimon-ng -t raw -c -a POCSAG512 -a POCSAG1200 -a POCSAG2400 -a FLEX -a SCOPE -f alpha /dev/stdin
See near the end of that command where is says "-a FLEX"? Go to any tutorial on the internet and they have ONLY the POCSAG decoders in the command line. I ran the command and sat and waited and not one thing happened. It was only when I installed this on Windows (the link near the top of the page) that I discovered our local pager system was using FLEX as a decoder. About one second after I added -a FLEX to my command I started getting messages. EVERYBODY ALWAYS LEAVES SOMETHING OUT. Here's what it looks like. Note, that if you are not getting a signal in the white box.........something ain't right.
Notice that I redacted the decoded pager messages. The law, remember?
Now you don't want to type that command every single time lets make a super easy script file to launch it. Go to the folder where you want to store the script and do this. I'm going to name my file "pager" but you can name it anything you want.
That makes an empty file. Open it with the following command:
sudo nano pager.sh
Now paste in this:
nc -l -u 7355 | sox -r 48000 -t raw -b 16 -c 1 -e signed-integer /dev/stdin -r 22050 -t raw -b 16 -c 1 -e signed-integer - | multimon-ng -t raw -c -a POCSAG512 -a POCSAG1200 -a POCSAG2400 -a FLEX -a SCOPE -f alpha /dev/stdin
Hit the Control key plus the X key. It will ask you if you want to save it. Hit Y and then Enter. Done.
Now lets make it executable.
sudo chmod +x pager.sh
Now you can just click on that file. Now you can read other people's pagers and shit.
It's been a while since I talked about media servers. Every mythical "power user" should have a NAS (Network Attached Storage). And on that powerful file serving NAS you should be running a media server to control all that music and all those videos. There are lots of choices, however I've narrowed my choices down to two go to media servers. Emby and Plex.
Now this is not an all encompassing review of every cool power user feature for a media server. This is a review of how I use a media server. Here's a quick rundown of some features I like and don't like. Lets start with Emby. Here's my home screen with Emby.
First of all Emby installs perfectly, and easily on FREENAS which is the NAS operating system I use. On the left you'll notice the blue square which says "Live TV". Emby does live TV but you need a TV tuner and the amount of tuners that work are limited. When I started using Emby you could only really use HDHomeRun devices. Not sure if they've expanded that or not. In this day and age of cord cutting I put a powered antenna with a high gain amplifier in the attic. I pull down all the local channels in HD for free. With Emby and my HDHomeRun Connect device (you gotta get one of these things) you can not only watch Live Tv but you can watch it across your network on any device. Also I VPN into my network when I'm on travel and I can watch it (if the internet connection is fast enough where I am).
It will segregate your movies and TV shows and the metadata and clip art it pulls down is perfect. With Live TV though to get a decent Electronic Program Guide (EPG) you need to buy a subscription but it is AWESOME and worth it to me. Even pulls the station graphics down nicely. You can click on any show below and just record it. Just like a Tivo. A very inexpensive DVR and besides, your NAS has tons of storage, right? Mine does.
So that's my key feature I use Emby for. Yeah it's nice to rip DVD's of Movies and TV shows but the Live Tv is a KILLER feature. I used to have no TV in my bedroom but now I do. Any device with a browser is now a TV.
Now, onto Plex. Plex does some of the same stuff Emby does and to be honest the interface is pretty slick and pretty. However I have one problem with Plex. While it kinda does Live TV it only does it on devices like Android, IOS, or Apple TV. Not on any device or laptop. Also you need an app to watch. Don't get me wrong, Emby has apps that do similar but you can still WATCH LIVE TV ON ANYTHING. Plex, not so much.
Plex puts the movies and TV shows on the Home page like Emby does and it is fairly similar in that respect however the Program Guide, which is FREE (Yeah).........sucks. It sucks ass. Oh, it looks okay, right up the point where you try to use and it and to see what is on TV several hours from now. Plex needs help here. But.......it's free. I can overlook a lot of stuff for free.
Plex does the same thing with a DVR device and in fact the latest beta of Plex has included lots and lots of popular TV tuner devices. It finds and uses my HDHomeRun Connect as well.
Plex DOES NOT install well on FREENAS, at least not for me and I always have to do a manual install inside of a BSD Jail. If you don't know what that means......consider yourself lucky. I will say that I also run another server at home on Ubuntu Linux and it also runs Emby and Plex (as a backup in case the NAS goes down). Plex installs PERFECTLY on Linux.
Also when I record on Plex from FREENAS I have to record inside the jail and not outside. Again, if you don't know what that means it translates into this:
It's a Pain In My Ass. I'm sure it is a permissions thing but I'm pretty good with Linux and I haven't figured it out yet. Still I have some work arounds. And once again if I install Plex on my Ubuntu server I have no such issues. I can record anywhere. Why this is important is that I can have one drive somewhere with all the data on it and access it from all media servers so I don't have the same data is several different places.
For John Hagensieker and John Hagensieker alone it's Emby all the way for me. The usability of the Live TV pushes it over the top for me even though Plex has some other cool tricks I didn't mention (namely channels).
Emby. Emby. Get Emby if you want a good intuitive media server that works everywhere.
Like I don't have enough SDR radios............I have a couple of the black dongles, a couple of the blue dongles, a couple of the Version 3 dongles, a FunCube Pro dongle, a NooElec Nano 3, a Ham It Up Upconverter, an Airspy, and a Spyverter up converter. I also have a HackRF.
I use one for FM radio at work and to listen to military aircraft ground communications. (I work in the Operations Building at MCAS Cherry Point, NC). Another one is in my attic doing PiAware and tracking aircraft with a filter and antenna. The Funcube Pro is my go to dongle for grabbing NOAA satellite data. For some reason I get the best results with it. The HackRF is doing replay attacks. The Airspy is a digital trunking radio. The Nano 3 stays in the laptop bag so I can show off SDR to lesser humans. Any or all of them can be used for HF listening as well. I just grab what's closest. I particularly like listening to this one Holy Roller on Shortwave who just knows the end of the world is coming right after the eclipse later this month. :)
Oh I almost forgot.......I have a Dreamcatcher and LNA antenna for talking to INMARSAT and the "Outernet" If you don't know what Outernet is.....check here.
This is not a review chocked full of technical information and numbers. This is a review from a hobbyist who is using the device for the first time(s) and my observations. While devices such as RSP2 are technically superior to regular SDR dongles it all depends on how you use it. If you buy an RSP2 and pay $169 and only listen to AM and FM radio....you spent too much. I'm using mine to track satellites, and sniff signals out of the air and trying to learn a thing or two about signals and signal security.
So while I know a thing or two about SDR, I'm still very much just a hobbyist with a Linux problem.
Decided to pick up an RSP2 from SDRPlay.com
The principal difference between the less expensive RSP1 and the RSP2 is the number of antenna ports. It has 2 SMA ports (A and B) and one High Z port for HF frequencies. The A port is just kind of a normal port and the B port has a Bias - T enable which allows you to crank a few volts out of the port to power a Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) which is an awesome feature. The High Z port has P, N, and Ground connections allowing for balanced installations.
So right out of the chute it is fat on features. An SDR experimenters dream. I was kind of surprised when the box arrived and it was just as it appears in a form fitting clear plastic box. And that's wonderful until you realize there is no USB cable, and oddly enough the thing that got me the most was the absence of the 4 sticky rubber feet that usually come with an item like this.
Neither of those things are deal breakers though, just minor annoyances.
Here's another thing that gets me (and I promise this isn't going to be a negative review). It doesn't work with the de facto standard SDR program SDR#. Well, that's kinda true. It does work if you use an older version of SDR# and a plug in. The great thing about SDR# though is that you run it from a folder in Windows and not your typically installed Windows program. That means I can have my up to date SDR# and launch the older version with the plug in from another folder.
UPDATED NOTE: I installed version SDR# 1491 and the RSPSDRPlay Plugin and it works great. Hopefully they'll get this resolved so one day I only have to have one instance of SDR# on the computer........but who cares? It works!
SDRPlay uses a program called SDRUNO downloadable from their website and while it looks powerful beyond all belief there is a steep learning curve compared to using SDR# or GQRX (free program for Mac and Linux). But once you learn how to navigate around well then, you've got it made.
I own exactly one Windows laptop that I just bought a couple weeks ago. I got it specifically to run some SDR projects that aren't ready for prime time in Linux. But, alas I am a Linux guy. To use an RSP2 on Linux you have to install a driver (which is a .RUN file, which you just don't see very much of in Linux) and then you have to install a program called CubicSDR. Oh if it were only that simple. You must install the driver, install some dependencies, and then build and install 6 programs from source code. That sounds daunting if you've never done it before. The instructions are here. While it looks terrible to the newbie, the reality is that it is just a lot of cutting and pasting. Depending on how fast your computer is it will take 20 to 30 minutes to work through it all. There was ONE mistake in the instructions. Under Step 6.2 for wxWdigets......See the space between the dash and the 3 below? Remove that space and hit enter.
In fact I'm going to say right now that if you are a bright and shiny SDR user that is not above average in computer geekiness this SDR may NOT be for you.
However, comma, if you can get through the install this is THE radio to get. The 10 MHz of useable bandwidth is huge and allows you to use the RSP2 to cover multiple trunked radio control channels and channels.
Also following the Non-Windows workflow will install a useable driver for GQRX as well.
The Device String ends up being:
And while it works, the waveform looks different under GQRX than it usually does when using an RTL-SDR dongle or comparable SDR such as the Airspy.
You can build an additional driver for Linux for GQRX however, as of yet I haven't done it yet. Probably won't on my work computer since all I do it listen to FM radio and ground voice communications.
And here's what CubicSDR looks like.
SDRPLAY RSP2 Device UNDER SOAPYSDR
CUBICSDR ON UBUNTU 16.04.2 LINUX
This SDR is a little less plug and play than other SDR dongles. If you are listening to AM and FM radio and tracking aircraft (dump1090) then buy a $25 dongle on Amazon or eBay and save some money. However if you KNOW you are going to grow your interest in SDR radio you NEED a device that has this fantastic 10 MHz of bandwidth because eventually you are going to build a digital trunking scanner. You're also going to want the 4.7 volt Bias-T to drive a Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) when you're chasing satellites. That will prevent you from adding a power supply to your rig. A power supply or voltage converter or stuff means another wire running up the pole and another extension cord or cable run.
If you are a hard core hobbyist this is MONEY WELL SPENT. You win.
First of all, why would you want to do this? Here's my best explanation. You can mount the SDR and Raspberry Pi somewhere permanent like the attic and maybe even outdoors. Then you can access the SDR from your computer without having an SDR plugged in and being tied to an antenna. Makes you mobile.
Here's my rig.
Raspberry Pi 3 - $35
NooElec Nano 3 - $27.95
Quite a portable little setup. Occupies a little more space than a can of Altoids.
Download Rasbian Jessie here and burn the image file with Etcher. Once you get booted up follow the directions on this excellent page to set up rtl_tcp. I'd copy the instructions here but I couldn't do it better than the page that is linked. Once you have a booted Pi with rtl_tcp running then you need to have client software like GQRX or SDR#. GQRX runs on Mac and Linux. SDR# runs on Windows.
Start GQRX and then click the crossed wrench and screwdriver.
Figure out your Pi's IP address and configure GQRX as so. (My IP address is 192.168.20.89 with port of 1234) Your address may be different.
To start a listening stream fill in the following:
Device string = rtl_tcp192.168.20.89:1234
Input rate = 1200000 (theoretically this should be 2400000) however mine choked a bit so I throttled it back some.
Now on your remote computer (connected to the same network) start GQRX. Note that at the top it shows connected to the rtl_tcp server you set up. Note that tuning is a bit slow. But it works. Now you can play with your SDR radio from ANYWHERE IN THE WORLD. Open port 1234 in your router to the IP of the Raspberry Pi using TCP and you can access it from anywhere. Listen to your favorite radio station from another state. Listen to Ham Radio from a hotel room without a 20' antenna or basically any gear at all.
First of all some definitions:
Trunked radio - Unlike a conventional radio which assigns users a certain frequency, a trunk system takes a number of frequencies allocated to the system. Then the control channel coordinates the system so talkgroups can share these frequencies seamlessly.
Trunking Scanner - Most scanners that can listen to trunked radio systems (called trunk tracking) are able to scan and store individual talkgroups just as if they were frequencies. The difference in this case is that the groups are assigned to a certain bank in which the trunked system is programmed.
Here's my definition: Digital radio, bro. Analog radio was just one frequency or the other. Now you have various channels that support higher usage without congestion automatically.
Yep, you can buy one if you have a spare $350 or so laying around. One that barely gets the job done might cost about $100.
Now let's create a trunking scanner. First a little primer.
I live in New Bern NC. Let's google "New Bern Frequencies" and it leads us to here. Note that not only can you buy a Scanner you can have the dealer preprogram it for you. Go ahead and click that link and check the prices. First though they want personal information. Trust me, you'll do this my way.
If you keep scrolling down the page you'll see all the individual frequencies you can select for the various city services. Scroll all the way to the bottom and you'll find the Trunking systems. I'm going to snag New Bern Public Safety.
I can't quite squeeze it all in a screen shot but I show the frequencies and there is a list of the talk groups below.
We also want to take note of the Radio System Type. This is Project 25 Phase 1 or P25-1. Remember this for later.
Okay this isn't that hard but I'm going to do it on Ubuntu Linux. This program is cross platform written in Java so you should be able to do this on Windows or Mac as well. On windows there is a Program called Unitrunker that is probably more powerful than this. This however is a tutorial on Ubuntu Linux using a program called SDRtrunk. I watched a six part video series on how to set it up and was thinking I was in for a lengthy fight. Then I just followed the directions on the github link I just gave you. There's only a few things to do. All that being said the videos I saw are AWESOME. They are what attracted me to this project and the guy that did them did a great service to the SDR community. I was going to work through his videos then thought, "Let me try this first" and it worked.
I have done this to three Linux computers. One with LinuxMint 18.2, one with Ubuntu 17.04, and one with Debian Jessie 8. It worked the same on all.
First you need Java version 8 or better. Three commands. On Ubuntu do this:
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:webupd8team/java
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install oracle-java8-installer
Now that's done. Technically we can just download and launch SDRTrunk but we need a decoder for the P25 radio system.
But lets get SDRtrunk first.
Go here to download. Now unzip (and I unzipped this in my /home/john directory which created a folder called sdrtrunk)
tar -zxvf sdrtrunk_0.3.0-beta13.tar.gz
Go here and download the latest JMBE release. Get the jmbe_builder.tar.gz file.
Now run the following two commands (in the directory the file is located in)
tar -zxvf jmbe_builder.tar.gz
This creates a file called jmbe-0.3.3.jar
Now copy this file into sdrtrunk folder (making sure your path is right)
sudo cp jmbe-0.3.3.jar /home/john/sdrtrunk
HURRAY YOU DID IT!
Now lets start the program. Plug in your SDR Dongle (you don't have to have this one, any one will do)
Should start with a pretty waterfall. My dongle was tuned to the FM band. They always store the last frequency they saw.
Just below the waterfall click the tab that says "Tuner" and then select the device it finds. It will open up details on the right side for the Tuner. Just keep the defaults for the device however you need to tune the Control Channel frequency from that page at the beginning of this tutorial. Mine is 858.2625
Now click the Channels tab and select "New".
At a minimum fill out the following:
Name - Anything you want.
Now go to the source tab and type in that frequency again. 858.2625 (yours will be different, unless you're my neighbor).
Now go to the Decoder tab and select P25 Phase 1 and Simulcast (LSM) (This may vary depending on your radio system). Finally click the enable button bottom left.
It should show up on the "Now Playing" tab as a Control Channel. I have noted that my AirSpy SDR dongle (as depicted in this tutorial) doesn't work very well and freezes the program at higher bandwidths (10 MHz). If I set it to 2.4 MHz it works fine on this very old laptop.
Here's the problem with that. The first frequency is 854 MHz (approximately) and the last is 859 something. That's 5 MHz. You won't get all the channels unless you add another SDR dongle (Cha Ching $25 more dollars). Technically the AirSpy should cover this with its 10 MHz spread but alas all it does is Overflow errors on the talk channels. Actually it also could be that this program desires a big old fat Intel i7 chip with a massive clock speed. This is a very old laptop I'm doing this on. I read some forum posts on the internet that lead me to believe this might be the cause.
If my SDR card has a limited bandwidth of 2.4 MHz then lets say my Control Channel is tuned to 858. We'll just round it up to keep it simple. Basically you have 1.2 MHz of bandwidth on both sides or 856.8 to 859.2. That doesn't begin to capture the bandwidth. But what I can do is add another inexpensive dongle and say tune it to 855.6 (theoretically this should cover, YMMV). See how that works? Two or three $10 SDR's covers the bandwidth you need covered.
I can confirm that the AirSpy device works GREAT on a much newer laptop. I have a Windows 8 era Dell laptop at work and the AirSpy SDR works famously on it and utilizes all 10 MHz of bandwidth which covers the whole New Bern trunking frequencies. Awesome! That being said you can buy a whole handful of RTL-SDR dongles for the price of an AirSpy ($169 OUCH) . With this program you can add multiple devices and set the frequencies on them to cover the bandwidth you need. 2 or 3 cheap dongles is way cheaper than an AirSpy or other advanced SDR radio.
All that being said the AirSpy is AWESOME! If you need to step up your SDR game the cheap dongles just don't cut it forever.
Therefore I declare this project and SDRTrunk program to work BEST with the el cheapo RTL-SDR dongles. That's actually a good thing. Save some buckazoids.
Here we are in action:
Update: Since starting this project I have since added one additional SDR dongle (v3 stick) along with my Airspy which allows me to capture the entirety of two trunking radio systems here in New Bern. I'm tracking two Control Channels and essentially getting all the city EMS, Police, Police Helicopters, Fire, Public Works, Animal Control, etc.
Seems the Airspy and SDRtrunk are a match made in heaven.
Great little project.
As with most geeky things I've found that NOBODY hardly puts those "seal the deal" details on the internet. Smart guys will say something like "balance the decombobulator" without actually telling you how to do it. Hey, they know how to do it and that's what matters.
In fact that is the whole premise of my webpage and my blog. To capture that minutia and those details and write them in a step by step easy to follow process.
First of all, what is an UpConverter? An upconverter allows you to get roughly between 0 and 24 MHz. There is where you find AM radio, Shortwave, and HF transmissions. Just beyond 24 MHz, and usually reachable with an upconverter is CB radio as well. So your basic SDR dongle doesn't quite reach that. Well actually one does. This one.
Here's how you do it in GQRX. When launching GQRX for the first time or while selecting "Configure I/O Device" here's how to get the HF frequencies........
Select the Realtek device and make sure the Device string says
beneath that set LNB LO to:
Score. You might need to make sure "No Limits" is selected In the "Input Controls" tab as well in order to properly tune.
That makes that RTL-SDR an awesome little device. For $25 and some geekery you can listen to HF band radio on the cheap. An upconverter always works best though.
Here are the other two I have. An AirSpy Spyverter and a NooElec Ham It Up.
For the NooElec set it up like below. It is ALMOST exactly the same as above. Simply hook it up, then remove the ,direct_samp=2 from the Device String. The LNB LO is also -125.000000 MHz. Here's a pic with me getting a great signal from the local AM radio (1450).
Lastly........The AirSpy R2 and Spyverter. Very similar but different values.
In the device string type:
with an LNB LO of -120.000000 MHz
And Bob is your uncle.
You know what the internet is. Did you know there was such a thing as the Outernet?
The Outernet is sometimes called the "Library in Space" and I believe the intent was to bring news, weather, and Wikipedia (encyclopedia type information) to areas where there is no Internet connection. The Outernet can be accessed by using an RTL-SDR device with a special antenna and Low Noise Amplifier (LNA). Or you can buy a kit for $90 from here. I opted to go this route. All you need to get going is to write an image file to an SD card, insert it, and then align and lock onto the satellite and it will immediately start downloading.
What you get in the kit is a Dreamcatcher version 2.03 computer board with ARM processor which has a built in RTL-SDR. It contains the following as well for the antenna.
- L-band SAW filter (1525 - 1559 MHz)
- Two-stage L-band LNA with 34dB gain
Because the signal from the satellite is weak, it is my opinion that it's best just to buy the Dreamcatcher kit rather than source parts and use a Raspberry Pi plus RTL-SDR, plus filter, plus LNA.
So when you receive the kit you receive the board, antenna and patch cable. That's it. No instructions or anything. Luckily it is a piece of cake to get working with the latest software. Download the software from here. Be sure to read the Readme.txt file for instructions. It's the closest thing you'll find to instructions. Because I bought the kit from them it instructs you to use the image file for the active antenna. At the time of this writing it is skylark-dc-1706222246-active-antenna.img.gz. Uncompress this file. The unpacked file should be named skylark-dc-1706222246.img
Now the easiest way to get this on the SD card is to download a program called Etcher. Then you select your file, select your SD card (I don't have one plugged in in the image below but you get the idea) and then click the flash button. IT IS THAT SIMPLE.
Now install the SD card into the slot next to the LED's labelled SD0_OS. Then plug it in the wall. THAT'S IT. Well, not really.
Now you need to align the satellite antenna.
The board creates a WiFi hotspot called "Outernet" connect to that WiFI and type the following address into the browser:
You'll see this:
Log in with user= outernet
pass = outernet
This is what you see next.
Click the little blue button on the top left and a toolbar will pop up. Click on Tuner > Status
You'll notice I have a lock and that I'm downloading in my example below. Yours may say no to "Lock", at least until you align the satellite.
There are a couple ways to align the satellite. I found this to be the easiest way. Obviously you need to know where to start looking. The Satellite we want is Inmarsat 4-F3 and it is located a little SW of North America.
The easiest thing to do is get a compass app on your phone and an inclometer app. Turn the compass until your heading is 212 degrees (and this is of course dependent on WHERE YOU ARE). Different compass headings for different locations. And slightly different elevations as well.
You can also get that information from an IOS app called "Dish Align". Shows you on a map which way to point and even has tools to help you align. I personally thought it was easier to get a lock with compass and inclinometer.
Takes a while to download information. Text based news comes down fast, and wiki articles are a bit slower. The Wiki articles seem relevant to current events (at least initially). The first one to come down I think was "G20" and of course the G20 summit is going on currently.
The weather takes a while and maybe it's because it is only published every so often daily. Might be a timing thing?. After 12 hours or so all I have are Ocean Currents data. Still.........it's cool.
Anyway, this is cool. Power goes out, internet goes out............betcha that satellite doesn't go out. You can still track news, and weather.
Well it took a while but I finally got the weather data! Here is wind, followed by heat.
And here are the various options for display. Quite a few things to display including precipitation. And the map zooms in.
YOU IS A SATELLITE HACKER AND SHIT.
We all have computers however they are more and more reliant on an internet connection, but what do you do when that internet connection is gone? Seems everyday on the news they are saying North Korea will pop an EMP off rendering the US power grid toast. I'm not really thinking that may happen but I live right in the chute of a hurricane tunnel. That's a lot more likely and I'm liable to be without power for a few days. I have a generator but what if that high speed internet connection isn't working? What if cell service is out? I've decided to dedicate one laptop to the task of being an Over The Air (OTA) device, non-reliant on the internet.
What can a computer do that isn't hooked to the internet? Quite a lot actually. Here's a few things you can do:
- Watch digital over the air television
- Listen to FM or AM radio
- Listen to Shortwave Radio
- Listen to Amateur Radio
- Listen to emergency service transmissions such as police, fire, weather, etc.
- Decode NOAA Weather Satellite Images
- Detect Aircraft Overhead
Not a bad list, huh? So the big hurricane hits and all the power and utilities are out it almost seems like a must to have all this. Here's what you need to get started.
- Laptop - I prefer an older Windows Vista / Windows 7 era laptop. They are plentiful, cheap, and many of them had Core Duo processors which are now dirt cheap. You could take an old Core Duo and slap a higher end chip in it for a few dollars. I took an old Dell 1545 with a 2.0GHz CPU and put a 2.80 GHz chip in it for $15 I think. A quick eBay search shows you can get an X9100 3.06 GHz CPU for about $15. Then again a Core Duo 2.0 does the job here almost as well. Go to BestBuy and look at laptop chip speeds now. A girly 1.8 GHz Celeron or some AMD low power thing. They are designed to last forever on battery and frustrate you with their lack of CPU and graphics speed. I don't care if you think these laptops are old but a Core Duo 3.06 GHz CPU running on Linux KICKS ASS.
- Operating system. You can use Windows here but if you have an old laptop with say Windows XP or Vista you'll probably want to upgrade WHICH COSTS MONEY. I use Linux which is FREE and does everything we need to do nicely here. I like LinuxMint, Debian, and Ubuntu. For this project I used Ubuntu Desktop. If you read the page it recommends 2.0 GHz as the slowest chip. There are a million flavors of Linux and some that don't need much horsepower such as Lubuntu.
- RTL-SDR Radio - Get this one if you can. $25 and it comes with a decent sized whip antenna.
- TV Tuner - Hauppauge X Box Tuner for aprox. $50 I guarantee you can find cheaper TV Tuners but I know this one works with Linux and I know it works WELL. They sell a Hauppauge HVR-955Q for about $70 but I read somewhere this X Box Tuner is the exact same hardware. I also own the 955Q and it works awesome as well.
- Antenna - I won't run too deep here but you can buy a cheap discone antenna from the internet which gives good broadband coverage. A $25 cheap Yagi TV antenna will work well here too. Heck you can MAKE YOUR OWN ANTENNA as well for next to nothing. If you live in a high signal area the whip antennas that come with the devices may be enough. With the cheap whip with my TV Tuner I get 12 Channels in New Bern, NC. 3 major affiliates with local and national news. I think if the stuff ever hits that fan that is what I'm shooting for anyway. Just note that if you want to decode satellite images you may need a handheld, tuned antenna or a DIY type antenna specific for that application.
Here's a screenshot of Me-TV and of course the picture will go full screen if you want it to. You even get a free electronic program guide (EPG).
Here's GQRX pulling in a local FM radio station.
The SDR Radio I linked to above will do HF, which encompasses Amateur and Shortwave and AM radio as well. It's just a little geeky to get going but this device will do all the necessary bands. There are other, cheaper RTL-SDR USB radios but they don't natively do HF, AM, Amateur, and Shortwave without an UpConverter which will make you another $40 or so lighter in the wallet area. And before you ask, yes I have an UpConverter too.
Downloading NOAA transmissions is a bit geekier and can be done easily in GQRX. I have on overview on my page here for doing it. Basically you need GQRX, sox, and WXtoIMG. A program called GPredict is also a necessity for tracking where the satellites are. All these programs are free. Here is GPredict configured with my favorite satellites. We can see that NOAA 19 is right over the top of me.
See the biggest circle on the page around North and South America? That is INMARSAT 4-F3. It is in geosynchronous orbit over the Americas. Its job is to be a library in space called Outernet. Get it? Internet, Outernet. By the way you can connect to it with an Outernet Dreamcatcher Kit. I have a kit in the mail I'll review later. So.... imagine power has been out for a while. You can hit the satellite up everyday for weather, news, and encyclopedia information. Seems pretty useful to me.
But the ability to predict the weather is PRICELESS if you are in a no power, no communications situation. I am really not kidding. You can get this quality of satellite imagery (below) from a $25 SDR Radio. Wouldn't it be nice to keep a close eye on that hurricane approaching?
Having an SDR radio in your hurricane kit is as valuable as a few cases of water, canned meat, and gasoline. YOU NEED ONE OF THESE.
Software Defined Radio - What is it? Most of us think of it as a hardware device and it is but it passes many critical functions off to the host computer and as the name implies most of the magic happens in software. We're going to focus on something called RTL-SDR which is usually a USB device that contains an RTL2832U chip. These are usually TV Tuner devices. But they do much, much more than act as TV Tuners. Much more. There is a list of items a simple $20 USB RTL-SDR can do on this page. This is the most concise list I have seen to date.
NOTE: THIS IS CUT AND PASTED FROM THE LINKED WEBSITE ABOVE. NOT MY LIST.
The RTL-SDR can be used as a wide band radio scanner. Applications include:
- Listening to unencrypted Police/Ambulance/Fire/EMS conversations.
- Listening to aircraft traffic control conversations.
- Tracking aircraft positions like a radar with ADSB decoding.
- Decoding aircraft ACARS short messages.
- Scanning trunking radio conversations.
- Decoding unencrypted digital voice transmissions.
- Tracking maritime boat positions like a radar with AIS decoding.
- Decoding POCSAG/FLEX pager traffic.
- Scanning for cordless phones and baby monitors.
- Tracking and receiving meteorological agency launched weather balloon data.
- Tracking your own self launched high altitude balloon for payload recovery.
- Receiving wireless temperature sensors and wireless power meter sensors.
- Listening to VHF amateur radio.
- Decoding ham radio APRS packets.
- Watching analogue broadcast TV.
- Sniffing GSM signals.
- Using rtl-sdr on your Android device as a portable radio scanner.
- Receiving GPS signals and decoding them.
- Using rtl-sdr as a spectrum analyzer.
- Receiving NOAA weather satellite images.
- Listening to satellites and the ISS.
- Radio astronomy.
- Monitoring meteor scatter.
- Listening to FM radio, and decoding RDS information.
- Listening to DAB broadcast radio.
- Use rtl-sdr as a panadapter for your traditional hardware radio.
- Decoding taxi mobile data terminal signals.
- Use rtl-sdr as a high quality entropy source for random number generation.
- Use rtl-sdr as a noise figure indicator.
- Reverse engineering unknown protocols.
- Triangulating the source of a signal.
- Searching for RF noise sources.
- Characterizing RF filters and measuring antenna SWR.
Look at that list. That's insane. All that stuff you can do with this:
Here's the quickest of the quick things you can do with it. Download a program called GQRX. Plug stick into computer (I'm using a Mac). Select the stick in GQRX.
Tune into a local FM radio station. Make sure that MODE is selected to FM Mono or Stereo. You need a faster computer to do stereo.
Now with a proper antenna you can listen to Police, Fire, Aircraft, Ham Radio Operators, CB Radio, Baby Monitors, Cordless Phones, Satellites (not kidding), the International Space Station (so not kidding), Boats, Weather Balloons.......like I said.....this is insane.
I have a handheld antenna tuned to about 138 MHz. I can use software (GPredict) to track satellites then when, say a NOAA weather satellite comes overhead I can download and decode the signal which turns into that picture you see on the Weather map on the news every night. YOU CAN DO THIS IN YOUR OWN BACKYARD.
Here's a pic of Tropical Storm Cindy sneaking up on Louisiana.
Here's another thing you can do. Track Aircraft. This is done with a Raspberry Pi and an RTL-SDR. These are the planes flying over my house as I type this. Pretty cool, huh?
Get a load of this. Many cities and their provided services (EMS, Police, Public Works, Fire Dept. etc) have gone to digital trunking radio systems. No longer will your old analog police scanner catch all the conversations unless it can be programmed to follow the trunked radio frequency changes. An RTL-SDR can also do Trunked Radio. Absolutely amazing. A scanner that listens to all city services for $25. That my friends, is a bargain.
Now picture this. The shit has hit the fan. There's no power but you have a generator and can charge a laptop. You have a TV Tuner, FM Radio, Aircraft Tracker, that by God can tell you if terrible weather is inbound. I would say this is much more than a hacker toy. This is a vital piece of survival equipment.
Actually I'm not totally sure you can watch TV on this as it is a PAL receiver and the US uses ATSC. I guess you could get an up converter or you could just buy a US TV tuner USB stick for another $30 or $40. I have a Hauppage 955Q. Most laptops have multiple USB ports. SDR in one, TV Tuner in the other and you are ready for any emergency.
Anyway you NEED one of these. You don't just want one. You really need one of these.
Suppose you are a very low usage internet person. Check email and read FoxNews once a day. You probably have a smart phone that has a Hotspot. My phone plan is Unlimited Data with 10 GB's of hotspot per month. That's so you don't share with 90 people and everybody rides for free. I know many people who don't use 10GB of data a month. Also I have an iPad that gets 20GB a month so that's 30GB's a month I can use that I seldom do use. I could almost fire the cable internet company.
Or lets say you want to surreptitiously run a wifi network at the office so you can check cutekittens.com which you know you aren't supposed to do on the work network. Or lets say you're somewhere and don't trust that network but you need to hook up multiple devices or you need a little better range than what you get with the phone or iPad.
You can also add an ad-blocker, run a VPN server, block web sites........stuff that you can't do on that phone or iPad.
I've found a good solution that is inexpensive, lightweight and not too obtrusive. We're going to hook our iPhone or iPad to the router and use it as a WAN connection so we can hook up to the wifi of the router.
The D-Link DIR-860L version B1 goes for about $40. It's very lightweight and about the size of couple of coke cans. Probably more suitable for a suitcase than a big rectangle with antennas sticking out all over it.
First in order to pull this off we need to install DD-WRT. Open a browser and type "ftp.dd-wrt.com" On Mac it asks if you want to open in finder. You can do that or just navigate via the webpage. Go to Betas > 2017 > the newest one > D-Link DIR-860 and grab the factory to dd-wrt file. Make sure you get the correct version. I have version B1.
Now log in your router interface and flash the file you downloaded. Sorry, no screenshot here. It takes 5 minutes or so but the address of the router will change to 192.168.1.1 and you'll have an open wifi network called "dd-wrt"
Once you go to the main setup page after setting a password you set your WAN connection type to "iPhone Tethering".
No go to "Wireless" and "Wireless Security" to change your SSID (if you want to) and to enable a password.
Go to Settings on your iPhone and turn off wifi and personal hotspot. Now plug your iPhone into the USB port on the back of the router. It will ask you if you want to Trust the Computer. Click yes.
Now turn on Personal hotspot and it should ask you to turn wifi on. Click yes.
Now in DD-WRT do this:
Next on the top bar click the tab that says "Status" and then "Site Survey"
Your phone will be listed in there somewhere and you may have to click the "Join" button (not depicted) Once you do that it will show up as a wireless node.
At this point you should be connected and you'll see a blue bar at the top of your iPhone page indicating a connection. After the site survey you may have to turn off wifi and personal hotspot and then pull the plug from the iPhone and start again with "Trust this computer". It takes a time or two maybe the first time you do it but after you get the blue bar you are using your iPhone as a WAN device on the router. Now you can connect to the router with it's wifi.
Yer doing it! You have successfully used your phone to provide internet to a router. Your telephone is acting like a cable modem. Depending on where you are you'll top out at 4G speeds.
Remember the data you use from hooking to the wifi on the router is part of the Hotspot data. Don't watch Netflix unless you have an unlimited hotspot plan.
I'm a firm believer that a stock router from Walmart or Target is wildly ineffective and minimally secure. I'm also a firm believer that you have to be a lot different from the crowd and that act itself makes you a little more secure simply because it makes you not as soft a target. Some ways to be different are to run open source firmware such as DD-WRT or LEDE. Yet another way is to get a non mainstream router such as a Synology RT2600AC. It has some great features not found on many regular routers.
First of all it does one amazing thing not found on almost any other router. IT MAKES YOU CHANGE THE DEFAULT ROUTER PASSWORD. Most routers steer you towards a hardened WIFI password while completely ignoring the actual "hooked directly to the internet via ethernet" connection. Default passwords are published on the internet. If your wifi has a gaping hole somebody has to be within 300 feet or so of you to exploit it. If your router is PHYSICALLY connected to the internet with a default password of admin / admin or admin / password then you're a sitting duck. MOST PEOPLE DON'T CHANGE THEIR DEFAULT ROUTER PASSWORDS. A blind kid could hack you.
It also has a unique feature where you can schedule the wifi to shut off. If you go to bed at, say 10 PM every night, why leave your wifi on? It can't be hacked if it isn't turned on. This router also has a button on the side where you can manually turn wifi on and off. What a concept!
Also you can schedule the LED lights to turn on and off at certain times. Nice to extinguish the flashing distractions especially if your router is in the bedroom or next to the TV you're trying to watch a movie on.
Because Synology routers are not really mainstream or sold in huge quantities they're a less attractive target.
What's the downside you say? It's a little tougher to set up. A bit more geeky. Another bizarre thing I noted was that as soon as I set it up it told me the SRM (firmware) needed to be updated. So I updated. It took longer than most routers AND when it was finished and just for fun I asked it to check again it found yet another firmware update. Apparently the upgrades are incremental. That's not very intuitive. Finally it tells me it's up to date!
Take notice of the control page here. It looks more like an operating system than a router configuration page. And of course it is. And of course they all are but this has a way different feel to it. This is like your basic window type graphical user interface. This router feels more like a Office/Small Business router rather than a home router. It is definitely a few steps up from a bottom shelf router at Walmart.
There is a Package Center where you can add packages (apps) to give increased functionality. This router provides excellent hardware specs to run a VPN Server and it has one of the easiest implementations of setting up a VPN server and providing client configurations to put on your devices. It's easy. It also can auto configure your firewall to keep the VPN from getting blocked. The only thing about that I didn't like it that it asked to open the ports for every kind of VPN the device supports. There is no reason to open the ports for an L2TP or PPTP VPN if you are running an OpenVPN instance. Advanced users will know to uncheck the radio boxes for those unnecessary ports but I don't think a first timer would. Never have open ports on your firewall that you don't need or intend to use. It's an open door or at the very least a poorly locked door with a really cheap lock on it.
Also it has a package called Intrusion Detection (Beta). Synology defines it as this:
Intrusion Prevention guards your Synology NAS from network threats, and identifies malicious packets to prevent your Synology NAS from infection and data compromise.
Other devices do this as well. For example my pfSense hardware firewall uses a program called pfBlockerNG which is similar. I'm sure the concept is the same. After reading through some forum entries I'm not sure this is smooth and polished yet. Without having deployed this at all I can tell you that many times these things are too restrictive. You just want to go to some website and it's blocked or elements of it are blocked. Then you go in the program and try to find the "rule" that blocked it. Many times you end up clearing the log and trying to recreate the problem so you can identify it so you can whitelist the problem. It's network administrator stuff, not Jenny from the Block stuff.
But if you put in the time and effort you'll have a decent intrusion detection system. Will it keep the NSA out? Ha. Doubtful, but it will keep out some segments of exploit attempts. I doubt a nation state or super hacker wants in your computer. It's the people scanning for social security numbers, identity theft mining, and pictures of wife getting frisky after the Christmas party with the new GoPro she got you that you are worried about.
Decided to make some upgrades to my oh, so perfect home automation system and alas, this is when you find the struggle is real. Everyone that comes here is impressed with the setup but there is a lot that goes on behind the scenes. Home automation is not quite ready for the casual user.
But alas, it is. Go in any department store and they sell home automation hubs, which connect to all these devices and, yeah, it kind of works but you don't have tons of control over the user interface and you can't get under the hood to fix problems that pop up, and oh brother do they pop up. And while home automation is getting wildly popular, it isn't well thought out in my opinion. Picture this: You have a $70 light bulb in the lamp next to the bed or in the hall. Do you really want to fumble around in the dark to find your phone to scroll through screens, to find the app, to turn on the light so you can go to the bathroom or let the dog out? Or how about this "ALEXA, TURN ON BEDSIDE LAMP" when your lovely sleep deprived wife is laying next to you. Go ahead, it'll be alright. Automation is cool! So is practicality.
Sadly to integrate automation successfully it needs to also be manual, just like the home of old. A little kid needs the lights on too. And when you have tons of devices, who can remember the names of them all the time to trigger them from Alexa? Was that "Front Window Lamp, Light, or Outlet? How do you change intensity? Get this: I have a GE 12730 Ceiling Fan Switch.
GE 12730 SMART FAN CONTROL
$45 and it controls a 3 position ceiling fan motor at, low, medium, and high. It's awesome, hold the switch up a second or two and the little blue light flashes and it turns up a notch. Turning it down works the opposite. The nice folks at Home Assistant incorporated it into their program and you can manually select the speed as well.
Really nice as well, but how do you voice trigger it? By golly, like this: "ALEXA SET BEDROOM FAN INTENSITY TO 66" 33=low, 66=medium, 99=high. By golly, that's intuitive. Try remembering that at 3 AM when it's stuffy and you want the fan speed up. Not medium, Sixty-Six. Awesome.
And while we're on the subject of Fan Switches......GE makes another one. The box looks identical except on the upper left corner of the box face there is no model number. That my friends is a GE 14287 switch which by golly isn't yet really supported by Home Assistant because it hasn't seemingly been added to the OpenZWave manufacturer_specific.xml file. Awesome! What the hell does that even mean? It means your $45 dollar switch doesn't work yet unless you have one of the home automation hubs on the box, and I've seen discussion that they don't always work yet either. It's too new.
So you try to name things with common names you can easily remember. I have a vacuum tube amp and preamplifier. The preamp is called a Bottlehead Foreplay. Try as I might Alexa will not voice command it. If I say "ALEXA TURN ON BOTTLEHEAD FOREPLAY OUTLET" it starts playing music through the Echo Dot. I'm so not kidding. So I had to rename it "Foreplay" because I can remember that. When I show off my system almost invariably the first thing someone asks is "Why do you have a device named Foreplay and why would it burn down your house?". And then I get that Ahhhhhhh.........you dirty old man look, usually followed to a punch to the shoulder. Man acceptance.
I love my home automation system, but I fear I'm the only one that can work it. It runs from an Aeotec Zwave Stick in a Raspberry Pi 3 and I have about 40 devices. The subsequent configuration file THAT YOU HAVE TO HAND CODE is about 700 lines long. Hey, anybody can do that right? But my implementation is better than one of these generic hubs that make you follow their methodology. And what do you do when you have 40 devices and then number 41 won't name correctly. That happens. You gonna reset the whole device and start over because you can't dig around under the hood and get in the weeds because you have a hub that won't let you?
Home Automation = COOL!
Home Automation = Frustrating
Sigh. I'm always touting network security and I'm firmly of the belief that one of the best things you can do is to buy a new router and install Opensource Firmware on it such as DD-WRT or LEDE. It's a GREAT first line of defense. In general the firmware is much less prone to exploits, the code is open and when exploits are discovered, the geeks on the projects close them fast. Ok you're sold.
NOT SO FAST!
I've been running Open Source firmware exclusively for years. I won't run any manufacturers firmware at all. So when somebody releases a fancy pants new router and I see it is supported by the Open Source community I get all excited, buy the router and then find out that while the router works it has all kinds of bugs and problems and well, just doesn't work good at all.
Case in point. Linksys WRT3200ACM. On the product web page it says that it is "Open Source Ready" with OpenWRT and DD-WRT.
Let's dissect that statement, shall we? OpenWRT is basically a dead duck. Its developers jumped ship to a new program called LEDE, so technically it's still there but also no great strides are being made. So that's sorta true but not good news. Also what they don't tell you is that the wifi chip uses a driver called "mwlwifi" which is made by Marvel and the driver is PROPRIETARY. So if you buy the router and use the driver Linksys paid for it'll work but if you use DD-WRT and LEDE the Open Source driver is still under development with all kinds of bugs.
So they tighten the driver up real nice and I'm ready to deploy my brand new shiny WRT3200 and lo and behold none of my Internet of Things (IoT) devices with ESP8266 chips in them will connect to the router. I have exactly 10 Home Automation devices in my home that will not connect to this router. That is a problem. A big problem.
JUST BECAUSE A ROUTER CAN USE OPEN SOURCE FIRMWARE DOESN'T MEAN IT CAN USE IT WELL.
So I have this router that cost $200 (I paid $119 for a refurbished one) that I can't use unless I use the factory software on it which I refuse to do.
So you really need to do your homework before you decide to run Open Source Firmware. There are hundreds of devices that can run Open Source Software. There are so very few that do it well. Here's a short list.
- Netgear Nighthawk R7000 I know what you're thinking. This is an old router. Comparatively it is older, however it is still way more router than anyone needs. The router is an AC1900 and reading the box leads you to believe you get 1900 MBPS speed. WAY UNTRUE. That is the combined speed of the 2.4 and 5 Ghz networks. You can't get that speed. In fact, look at this:
I'm in the room next to my router and I connect at 527 Mbps. In fact my MacBookAir maxes out at 867 Mbps so why would I need a router any faster than that. 1300 Mbps on the 5 Ghz band is unachievable. Now tell me again how this is an old router. The R7000 still has a very active community and it is still used by a lot of the super geeks. Years of development have gone in this platform make is super fast, and super stable and secure. That's what we're shooting for. In fact, the R7000 is my number one recommendation.
What are the cons? It's friggin huge. That's about it.
- Netgear R7800 - Ok, you have to have new, I get it. This is what you want. This is the current darling of the Open Source Firmware community. In fact you may want to explore the installation of LEDE firmware for this bad boy. In my mind LEDE is a little faster, a little more secure and a little more stable. I could be wrong about that though but that is my gut feeling. I have an R7800 that I use for my guest network and it runs LEDE and I love it. In fact I installed LEDE and haven't touched it since. It's super stable and I get high wifi speeds over great distances.
- DLink DIR-860L version B1- The reason there are two hot links there is because the B1 version is HARD TO FIND. The amazon link is a version A1. The DIR-860L is the best "cheap" router you can get. You shouldn't pay more than $40 or $50 for it. Also it doesn't have big honking antennas on it so it's better suited to small homes and apartments. The guys at LEDE are working hard at making it faster than Richard Petty on crank as well. It's an amazing little device.
- Archer C7v2 - This router came out a couple years ago and had bells and whistles on it that only much higher priced routers had at the time at a fraction of the price. It immediately became a hit and that hit gravitated over to the Open Source Community. Good solid builds for this device and excellent open source support for its Qualcomm Atheros wifi chipset. Can't go wrong with this router.
In my mind that's really about it. Honorable mention to Linksys WRT1900ACS. Although it also has Marvel wifi drivers in it they cracked the nut for that particular chipset a while back. The WRT3200ACM remains problematic. I have a WRT1900ACS as the main router in my home with DD-WRT and it works flawlessly. I have a build from late March and my understanding though is that some of the newer builds have problems as well.
I realize that most people don't have the know how to flash routers and understand what chipset is better supported than other ones but that's why us geeks are here. Hug a geek today.
The other day I made a Facebook post which got more attention than I expected. I told the story of an acquaintance of mine who heard I was "the router guru" and who contacted me because their monthly internet data usage from the cable company spiked in a HUGE way. She contacted the cable company who came out, told her she'd been hacked and she needed to change her passwords and drove away. No help at all.
And on top of it they told her she would have to pay for the overage because she was using her own router and not the cable company's which I find to be very bizarre because cable companies use combo modem/routers which have just about the worst track record for security imaginable. However, if I owned the cable company that would probably be my bottom line fiscal policy as well. Guess it depends which side of the fence you sit on.
I've been trying to raise awareness for home network security in my circle of friends for some time. Most probably just tolerate my posts as most folks aren't as geeky as I am. I get that, I really do. And when you learn some giant tidbit that excites you regarding computer security there is no one to tell that understands it, so I tell Mr. FaceBook. So everybody probably just thinks I'm that crazy geeky guy with a poodle.
And most people have this attitude about hacking..........."I'm not very interesting. Anybody who hacks me is wasting their time. I don't have anything important on my computer I care that much about.
And you know what..........For the most part, for most people, that may be true.
But then this thing happens. Lady is minding her own business, not hurting anyone, someone hacks her and then IT COSTS HER MONEY. She was the victim of a crime that had a fiscal impact. Believe me when I tell you folks......this can happen to you too. Someone can steal your data which can cost you money.
Getting hacked could cost you the Presidency as well. :) Ask Hillary Clinton.
Getting hacked also could reveal all your emails which reveal you to be a Spirit Cooking, UFO nut as well. Ask John Podesta.
It could cost you your job. Ask Debbie Wasserman Schultz or Donna Brazille.
All these things happened. Sorry if that offends your political ideology, but they happened.
Let's say I'm a black hat hacker and lets say I deal in images for money. You can use your imagination here. Naked pics of celebrities, kiddie porn, whatever. You don't think I'm storing that crap on my computer, do you? Nope, I'll store it on YOUR network and sell links to the images. SUDDENLY YOU ARE COMPLICIT IN A CRIME.
Okay, lets get real here. When the investigators roll in it won't take them long to figure out it isn't you. You probably will never see the inside of a booking room or cell but oh what a pain in the ass it will be when they knock on your door and take your stuff.
Here's another scenario. I break into your network and hack a computer or all of your computers and turn them into my evil bots. I use them to attack other computers. You don't think I'm gonna hack the Pentagon from my computer, do you? Nope, I'd do it from your computer. You don't think I'm going to do a Denial of Service Attack from my computer, do you? Are you beginning to get the picture here?
So why are you so vulnerable to attack? First of all lets discuss how you connect to the internet. Generally in this day and age it's via a cable or satellite modem, hooked to a wireless router inside your home. There are combo devices which do both as well. Or you can connect via a MiFi brick which is becoming more and more common as well but that's a discussion for another day. It's still just an access point.
Now let's go to the store and go router shopping. Look at the boxes. They all tell you how FAST they are, but look for a box that tells you how safe and secure it is. You won't find one. Why? Because they aren't the least bit safe or secure. I've said this before and it always bears repeating..........That router is designed for the stupidest person capable of opening the box getting connected to the internet easily without having to call their expensive tech support people on the phone lines.
Now, flip your router upside down. There's a sticker there that gives you an awesome WiFI password. ChittyChittyBangBang498374$%&)
And you know what? That's great. It really is.
EXCEPT FOR ONE THING. YOUR FUCKING ROUTER IS CONNECTED DIRECTLY TO THE INTERNET VIA AN ETHERNET CABLE TO THE MODEM AND THAT INTERFACE HAS A PASSWORD TOO! Wanna guess what that password is?
I swear to God it is usually "password", or admin, or NOTHING. Nothing filled in the password block. I AM SO NOT KIDDING.
Don't believe me? Google up "Netgear default password", "Linksys default password".........whatever.
Most people NEVER change this password. When you boot into the router software to set it up IT DOESN'T PROMPT YOU TO CHANGE THIS PASSWORD.
Why not? Because the stupidest person capable of opening the box will change it, screw something up, then call tech support and tell them "I dunno what my password is". And then they have to pay the tech support person to sit on the phone with that person for 30 mins to an hour teaching them how to reset the router and starting all over again.
There is no security folks. Most of you have a 5 year old router, with 5 years of dust on it behind your TV that you've never updated, and certainly never changed the password. When you read the news and it says "The hacking group Anonymous took down Coca-Cola corporation today with a Denial Of Service Attack using 500,000 bot computers....." Guess what? You're one of them. Maybe two of them. Maybe even three of them.
If I'm a super skilled hacker I can break in your router EVEN IF you do all this because the router manufacturer puts software designed for that stupid person on the device that's full of gaping holes. Even if you do change your passwords which is a must, there are other ways to break in. Someone can probably always break in but for God's sakes don't make it easy. The super hackers don't want to look at pics of your grandkids. You're no great prize to them. But to the 14 year old hacker in Prague you are. All the people who think they have skills can get in, they will, and they'll steal your data and THAT CAN COST YOU MONEY.
You should do the following things at a minimum:
- Call the cable company as ask them to provision your modem and install the latest firmware on it. They are supposed to do that. By the way modems are hackable too. Google up "Arris Surfboard hacks". Most home users have an Arris Surfboard modem. Walmart and Target sells the shit out of them.
- Buy a modem that can install third party firmware such as DD-WRT or LEDE and buy a geek a pizza and a six pack to configure it for you. I myself like combination pizza and Michelob Ultra.
- Change the router password in addition to the wifi password.
- Turn off remote management,ssh, telnet, and Universal Plug and Play (UPnP). The only way you should be able to interface with that router is through an ethernet cable hooked directly to it or via wifi.
- Get a hardware firewall appliance. pfSense is popular and it is FREE. You heard me correctly. It's free. Totally free. You can buy an old rack mount server on eBay for less than $100 that has the horsepower to run pfSense. THEN YOU HAVE A HARDWARE FIREWALL RIGHT AFTER THE MODEM AND RIGHT BEFORE THE ROUTER. This will cost you several pizzas and a case or two of beer. Money is also accepted.
There's much more you can do to protect yourself. Right now you're making it too easy for the bad guys. And it could cost you.
Okay this is harder than it should have been. Tons of information on the internet, NONE of it in one place. Why, SpongeBob, why?
This is a tutorial done on a Linksys WRT3200ACM with BrainSlayer DD-WRT dated May 27, 2017. And I'm doing this from a Mac. If you are doing this from Windows or Linux you need to ask Mr. Google what to do.
First we need a program called Tunnelblick. Download and install it.
Now we need to make some encryption keys. Type the following in your Terminal program. And make sure you replace "john" with whatever your path name is.
$cd /Users/john/Library/Application\ Support/Tunnelblick/easy-rsa
Or let me show you a cool Mac Trick. Go in Finder to the Library path above. Open Terminal and type cd and add a space. Then highlight and drag the easy-rsa folder into the terminal. It fills out that long complicated path for you.
We'll do some housework in the vars file by changing our locations and setting up a 2048 bit key.
sudo nano vars
Now adjust the following parameters regarding your location and change the 1024 to 2048 as per the example below. Scroll down a bit until you find this section. Then change:
export KEY_SIZE=1024 to export KEY_SIZE=2048
A little further down where it says "These are the default values for fields" Fill in the information to match your key best. Make sure to uncomment the lines (if they are commented out) by removing the # in front of the word export.
Once that is done hit CTL +X and Y to save then run the following commands.
$ . vars $ ./clean-all
This will create a directory called "keys" which will create server and client keys that you need to pull this off.
$ ./pkitool --initca
The command above will make your ca.crt and ca.key files
$ ./build-key-server server
This makes your server.crt and server.key files
This makes your SSL/TLS parameters.
$ ./build-key john
This makes your client keys. You can name this anything you want. john, jane, phone, computer, mom, whatever.
The files circled are the ones you'll need for configuring DD-WRT OpenVPN. You won't have a "config" directory. I did that for convenience.
Now go to "Services > VPN > OpenVPN Server / Daemon and configure as below.
Add your keys by right clicking on them and Open With "Text Editor" and copy the contents between these two lines and make sure to include the Begin Certificate and End Certificate lines with all the dashes as well:
All the crap between these lines.
Paste these four fields in the corresponding boxes.
Public Server Cert = server.crt
CA Cert = ca.crt
Private Server Key = server.key
DH PEM = dh2048.pem
WHOOPS GOT THE CA Cert Field Copied Twice. Ignore please.
In Additional Conig add the following
keepalive 10 120
push "redirect-gateway def 1"
Now we need to set up our client certificate. Add the following by opening Text Edit. Make sure you are making a plain text doc and paste in the following. Make sure on the fifth line this points to your ddns server or static IP address (if your ISP gives you one). Make sure the three lines about the certs match the name of your certs as well. Mine are john.crt and john.key. Remember yours could be phone.crt or whatever. Also note that I have changed the VPN port from 1194 to 1195. It never hurts to take a service and move it to another port. Does that make you foolproof from hacking? No but it's another layer somebody has to punch through. Make it harder.
client dev tun0 proto udp float remote yourddnswebsite.com 1195 remote-cert-tls server tls-cipher TLS-RSA-WITH-AES-256-CBC-SHA256 cipher aes-256-cbc auth sha1 ca ca.crt cert john.crt key john.key comp-lzo adaptive keepalive 15 60 resolv-retry infinite nobind redirect-gateway def1
Save this file and call it
and place it in a directory called HomeVPN with the following other files (or whatever you named your client keys)
Now rename the folder from HomeVPN to HomeVPN.tblk
That will place the 4 files into one container.
You can now double click this container file to import into Tunnelblick. After configuring your firewall you should be good to go with your OpenVPN server.
If you have an iPad or iPhone download the OpenVPN app, then connect your phone or iPad to iTunes to sync. Go to "Apps" and scroll down the Apps page to the "File Sharing" section and then click on the OpenVPN app. Drag those 4 files in and sync again.
Now when you open the OpenVPN app it will ask you if you want to import the connection. It'll be ready to roll after we complete the following steps.
Now set up the firewall:
Go to "Administration > Commands" and insert the following then click on "Save Firewall"
iptables -I INPUT 1 -p udp --dport 1195 -j ACCEPT iptables -I INPUT 3 -i tun0 -j ACCEPT iptables -I FORWARD 3 -i tun0 -o tun0 -j ACCEPT iptables -I FORWARD 1 --source 10.8.0.0/24 -j ACCEPT iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -s 10.8.0.0/24 -j MASQUERADE iptables -I FORWARD -i br0 -o tun0 -j ACCEPT iptables -I FORWARD -i tun0 -o br0 -j ACCEPT
One final step. Let's set up DDNS. This allows you to be able to find your OpenVPN server even when your ISP changes your IP address. If your ISP assigns a static IP address you don't need to do this.
There are a multitude of free DDNS servers out there. In this instance I used NoIP.com. Another favorite of mine is DuckDNS. With DD-WRT NoIP is in the drop down list which makes it a little easier to configure. Only bad thing about NoIP is that you have to confirm once a month that you are still using the DDNS. They send an email, and you update it. No biggie but a pain sometimes.
Once you create an account you can make a hostname, like yourlastname.ddns.net, or bigpoodleinthesky.ddns.net or whatever. Now go to Server > DDNS and fill in your account name, password, and hostname. When you click Apply it should say it updated successfully.
You should now be able to connect to your OpenVPN instance from an outside network. Congrats.
Home automation is kind of like a drug. The more you get the more you want. And the more you study and read up about it the more you see people messing with LED strip lighting. There are all kinds of LED strip lighting you can buy but I'll center this discussion around WS2811, 12 volt strips and WS2812, 5 volt strips. I only have one strip which is the WS2811 which I bought here for a little bit less than $27. You can get cheaper stuff on eBay as well. For my first excursion into this I wanted to make sure I had something tried and tested and I read several on line accounts of people who used these successfully. Here's what a cut shortened section looks like.
The roll you get is 5 meters long and has connectors on it. I just cut this section off to play around. See the line going through where the power wires get soldered onto on the left side are? That is the cut line. You can cut these strips to any length.
This is not a definitive work on LED strips but just my experience with this one strip. And my control mechanism is an MQTT server used under Home Assistant Home Automation software. I basically replicated the work of "Ben" and used his code. If you use Home Assistant software it's hard not to know who Ben is as he has made several great informative YouTube videos.
If you do not know what an MQTT server is or what Home Assistant is ..........move on quickly. You can however buy these lights as kits with RF controllers that have remote controls with them. Rather than just jamming power into it you power the RF controller which plugs right into the end of your LED strip and then you just click-ity click on the remote to get the colors you want displayed. Easy money.
By setting this up with MQTT and using an ESP8266 Internet of Things chip you can computer control your lights and make them part of your home automation which is what I've done here. My pic below is an oversimplification to be sure. Here are the parts you need:
12volt power supply. This can be a brick or a dedicated power supply. I got this one. It makes some noise as it has a fan for cooling which kicks on sometimes so if you need whisper quiet get a 12 volt, 10 amp computer type brick. Also since you have 12 volts readily available now it is best to get your 5 volts for the ESP8266 from a 12 volt to 5 volt step down converter. I used this one. Lastly you'll want a NodeMCU ESP8266 WiFi chip from here.
Also note on my pic below that that isn't the drawing for the LED strip I ordered above. It was as close as I could find. Ignore the markings on the drawing below but wire as depicted in my photo above.
The LED Strip you receive will have 3 wires connected to a plug already soldered on it. And you'll receive another plug with a short section of wiring with bare wires on the end. When I shoved these wires into the breadboard and the longest run of wire I had was about 6" it worked PERFECTLY. However when I drilled a hole through the wall, then routed the wires down to the noisy power supply in the garage the run was about 3' long. I had what I would call some data issues due to the length of the cable.
Here's the deal with that. The data signal coming off the ESP8266 pin D5 (as per the code, you could move the pin if you wanted to) is 3.3v. The data signal the LED Strip wants is 5v. If you have short wires, and maybe not a full LED strip this may in fact be adequate, however if you have long wire runs and a long LED strip you may need a Logic Shifter. It will shift your signal from 3.3v to 5v. Right at the moment I am not using a logic shifter but will probably add one. Just to be safe. I picked mine up here. Don't buy one up front until you know you need one.
One more gotcha here........The code that is written has all manner of cool animations. Your LED strip can be quite amazing however after running the animations for a few minutes it crashes. This seems to be a known issue and the code developer (Ben) is working on it. As it is the solid colors work fine for me. I'm not really into running animations on my LED strip, as I just wanted it for back lighting effects so I'm good!
NOTE: As of today, 2 June 2017, there seems to be a fix to the code which is working well so far! Told ya.
As you can see I laid mine on top of the decorative arch in my living room. It was the perfect length and it just laid down flat, no tape, no staples, nothing. I can remove it in moments if I need to.
I drilled a hole through my wall into the attic and then pushed the wires down into the garage.
There were some issues with this setup. The data wire (green wire on the left side of the ESP8266) was about 2' to 3' away from the actual LED strip. When I applied power the first three LED's immediately lit up. When I turned them on those LED's would behave as the others, same color and all and then when I shut the strip off the first three LED's would remain lit and color shift a bit.
I figured the data signal was corrupting or something so I took apart this rig and laid all the components out on a breadboard and laid them on top of my decorative arch right next to the LED strip. That worked GREAT but you could see the breadboard from the ground and when the LED strip came on it cast a noticeable shadow from the breadboard and components. That bothered me too much.
So I took a protoboard and soldered the NodeMCU in with a 3.3v to 5v Logic Level Shifter. This takes the 3.3v signal and amplifies it. I was then able to mount everything back in the garage.
Here's the layout.
And here's the real deal:
Now nothing is visible at all and the LED lights are in my mind professionally installed now.
Here a quick rundown of the system:
Ok the goal of getting on the internet at home usually involves having the cable company come out and give you a modem. You in turn need a router but you know deep down the cable company router is a screw job extraordinaire. So you go buy your own. You go to Walmart and buy the cheapest thing that says "REALLY REALLY FAST" on the box. And they advertise speeds that you can't actually achieve but that's a blog for another day!
Never mind.......I'll touch on it. I have a MacBook Air. Top wifi speed is 867 MBPS. I don't care how fast the router is..........the max speed I'm going to connect is 867 MBPS. See where I'm going with this? TEST QUESTION: So an AC 3200 MBPS router connects me at what speed? If you answered 3200 MBPS you are clueless and probably a democrat. The correct answer is 867 MBPS.
Also, look at the router box real close. See any discussion about security on it? Nope. You won't. Why? Because they aren't secure because the real goal is that the dumbest person who opens the box be able to connect to the internet without them paying a tech support person for an hour to help you on the phone. Isn't that swell?
So here's a banging banging deal on a router that nets you decent security as well. First of all we want a D-Link DIR-860L version B1. Go in any store that sells them and you'll likely get a version A1. We want the B1. Look carefully at the box. They're a little hard to find in the US but I found one on eBay for $40 here.
It looks different than most routers which are rectangular boxes. Now right off the bat I'm going to tell you that D-Link has HORRIBLE SECURITY but we're going to blast their router software and add our own. This propels the DIR-860L into beast mode.
Now I am having you download the Developmental version that has no graphical interface. There is a stable version that does have a graphical interface and that would make a lot of the steps below not necessary but we want to enable something called Smart Queue Management Quality of Service (SMQ QoS) which crashes on the stable version right at the moment of this writing (5 May 2017). So we use the bleeding edge version.
Now power up your router and connect to your computer through port number 1, not the one that says internet, the one that says port 1.
Now go to a browser after it boots and type this address in the bar. At this point do not hook the router to the internet. Crappy security, remember?
You'll see the router config page. It'll try to get you to configure the internet but just X out of all that and you'll land at this page:
Click on advanced and then UPGRADE. And make no mistake, LEDE is an upgrade!
Now flash that file you downloaded previously. It will take a few minutes and you won't really be able to watch it because the address will change from 192.168.0.1 to 192.168.1.1 Just let the page countdown to 100% and take a short break to be sure it gets flashed.
Now developmental versions don't have a graphical interface but it's no problem to install one. Open Terminal in Mac or Putty in Windows and go to 192.168.1.1. In Mac type this.
ssh 192.168.1.1 -l root
That's a lower case letter L before root.
It will bark at you because there is no password. Ignore for the moment. Get ready to copy and paste these commands then hook the router to the internet and pass these 4 commands one at a time.
opkg install luci
Now go to your browser and type
and then configure your password. You can type anything in for a password then it will take you to the password change screen where you can change it. Make it a strong password. While you are on the password page set dropbear ssh to LAN as shown below. Then at the bottom of that page (not shown below) click save and apply.
Now go to Network "Wireless" and configure your WiFi
The Wireless Security tab is where you set the password.
Use Force CCMP (AES) as that is most secure
Now you have a $40 router that is a bad mama jamma. Now here is a bad ass trick to deal with something called BufferBloat. Bufferbloat quite simply is this:
Bufferbloat is the undesirable latency that comes from a router or other network equipment buffering too much data.
So this is probably something you didn't even know you suffered from. Why? Because your router is set for the stupidest user like I said before. Not the fastest or most secure user.
So lets put the DIR-860L into Internet Beast Mode.
Go back to your terminal and type
opkg install luci-app-sqm
Now go to System > Startup
Scroll down to "sqm" and click the start button and make sure it is enabled.
Now go to the Network Tab and at the bottom should say SQM-QoS. Click on that.
Now I set mine up according to the screenshots below. Your Mileage May Vary and I may not have it set up perfect but I pass the Bufferbloat tests at DSLReports like a boss. Note that each picture is of each of the three tabs on the page.
Now test at DSLREPORTS Speed Test.
Forty Bucks Folks. Forty bucks. Secure AND FAST.
Well, I bought a new router and that means I've got to exploit it for all it's worth. If you have even an inkling of network security awareness you know by now that home routers are by and large un-secure. Here's a good example of that. Not THREE days ago in the mail I received a shiny, new, refurbished Linksys WRT3200ACM router. State of the art, she is. One of the hottest, fastest, sexiest routers going right at the moment.
Look at what's in the news TWO days ago. Linksys router security story. Great. I had it a whole day and it's a security nightmare.
Think about this. This is the newest, biggest, and baddest router and it is about as secure as your son at Michael Jackson's Neverland Ranch.
Most of us are fairly router un-aware. Content to use the router the cable or satellite company gives you. Or at best buy a cheap router at Walmart then jump for joy when we plug it an and it works. It's usually hidden behind the TV never to be thought of again unless it breaks. Old hardware, running old software, hooked directly to the internet. What could go wrong?
There are some things you can do to mitigate. You can secure your network with a hardware firewall. There are several Open Source solutions for doing that and this isn't the blog for that scenario. However, that being said I run a pfSense appliance as my hardware firewall. It's very geeky to set up and in fact as you configure it you can be TOO restrictive which becomes a pain as well.
To really mitigate, or to at least improve the situation you can take your fancy router and install an Open Source Firmware on it. This essentially is a new operating system for the router. By and large they are Linux based. Because they are Open Source you have a community of people looking at them and patching up holes as they find them.
If you have a fancy new router and use the manufacturers firmware it probably has a fancy box which allows you to auto-update the firmware. And that's great right up to the point where I demonstrated above that the brand new, expensive as all get out router is basically Swiss cheese. With Open Source Firmware you're probably not going to have that fancy auto update box, nor do you want it because sometimes in the bleeding edge world of Firmware stuff breaks.
And if you're going to mess with Open Source Firmware I recommend you have TWO routers around in case one experiences some down time.
Now I haven't painted a very rosy picture here but the reality is that if you run said Open Sourced Firmware you are going to be more secure, have way better performance, and stability and you'll have community support. Try emailing Linksys or Netgear with a problem. You'll get an immediate email letting you know you're alive and then a crap answer 2 days later written by someone that knows less about routers than you do that you'll have to follow up on.
Also with Open Source Firmware you'll have the ability run programs that are not included in most manufacturers firmware. Things like Ad-Blockers, OpenVPN servers, proxy servers, DNSCrypt Proxy, guest networks, use your router for Home Automation.........you name it. I didn't even get close to covering all the bases there.
Here are some firmware choices you can use (provided your hardware is compatible).
OpenWRT - The granddaddy of the Open Source Firmware world. Started in around 2004 for the Linksys WRT54G routers (which is still a huge seller by the way) and sadly now just about a dead duck.
LEDE - Based on OpenWRT. Most of the developers didn't like the direction of OpenWRT and thought it was getting too closed. So they broke off and started their own thing which I just rediscovered.
DD-WRT - probably the firmware with the best name recognition and most popularity. Probably supports a lot more routers than all the other projects put together.
AsusWRT-Merlin - based on AsusWRT stock firmware. This is an amazing firmware but of course limited to Asus hardware and is ported to a few other routers. For example I run AsusWRT-Merlin on my NetGear R7000 Nighthawk router. It's awesome.
Tomato - There are a few forks of Tomato so i won't hot link anything. Shibby Tomato was a favorite of mine in years past but it sadly seems to be a dead duck as well.
Gargoyle - I don't have much experience with Gargoyle but I see it mentioned on the Forums quite a bit.
And of course there are more, probably many more but those are the most common ones.
So I have this shiny new Linksys (which is really Belkin) WRT3200ACM router and my go to firmware is and always has been DD-WRT however because this router uses a Marvel wifi chip and Marvel is NOT Open Sourced so much the wifi drivers on the Linksys WRT routers are usually CRAP for a year or so until the community hackers fix 'em up. For example I have a Linksys WRT1900ACS I got a little more than a year ago. It was a few months before DD-WRT got the drivers right. Now it just plain works, day in and day out, solid as a rock.
But the boys in OpenWRT and LEDE land always seem to compile the drivers in first before DD-WRT so what typically would happen was I'd hear about a new driver and I'd install OpenWRT and play around with a bit and then gravitate to DD-WRT later. Now that LEDE has spun off and I'm running a version of it I'm big time impressed with it. That is provided these wifi drivers hold up.
It's lean, mean, doesn't consume all the RAM and the LEDE developers are playing around with CPU scalability as well. They've really built a fine firmware. Right now the "Stable" branch still has the buggy wifi drivers in it but that will change soon and then I'll deploy this router as my main device.
One of the great tricks LEDE has is that I can change the power setting in the WiFi output. Yep, more power. More coverage. Because I am running behind a hardware firewall all I really need is a router that is:
I don't require any other widgets. I do all my Ad Blocking, and Firewalling and VPN servers on my hardware firewall appliance. Here's a peek at the interface.
Simplistic. Not a lot of bells and whistles (although there are LEDE builds that have them) I end up getting EXACTLY what I need here. No more, and no less.
ME: Hardware Firewall to LEDE router which is secure
YOU: Cable modem to 5 year old router you've never updated.
Which one of us best stands a chance of not seeing our taxes on The Racheal Maddow Show?
Okay, here's how I did it and bear in mind I'm running a Development snapshot because of those drivers. The "Stable" version you just flash it from your Linksys firmware where you select the file and then flash. LEDE has a graphical interface, viewed in a browser, called LuCI.
The development snapshots don't gotta no LuCI (said in your best Ricky Ricardo voice). If you don't know who Ricky Ricardo or "Lucy" is just please leave now and never try to run Open Sourced Firmware.
Navigate to this page and download this file:
Make sure to get the squashfs-factory image file.
Now flash it from your Linksys firmware updater.
Once you flash it now open a terminal or Putty program and (in Mac OS X) type:
ssh 192.168.1.1 -l root
You may need to adjust your IP address but the initial flash I believe always turns the router into 192.168.1.1
Once you get in it will bark at you for not having a password set. Just press on quickly.
At your terminal prompt run the following 4 commands, one at a time, and yes, you must be hooked to the internet.
opkg install luci
Reboot, and then point your browser to http://192.168.1.1 and Bob's your Uncle.
I think by and large though for a home router that you want wicked stability on you want to only run the stable releases however I'm stuck between a rock and an unstable place because of the Marvel Wifi Driver issue (which will be resolved soon, you'll see). In fact the super geeks are getting much closer to solving this problem. I'd estimate a couple more weeks and it'll be resolved.
Power. Stability. Speed. Reliability. AND SECURITY.
I need another router like I need a hole in the head or an STD. That being said I stumbled across the router deal of the decade for a refurbished Linksys WRT3200ACM for $119. It's a great deal because retail is roughly double that and it's a brand new state of the art router.
All that being said, it's still a Linksys router and the home router market is just not as secure as you'd like it to be. The goal of the router manufacturer is that the dumbest customer they have open the box, plug it in, and get it working. That's not exactly built with security in mind.
For more details go to this website RouterSecurity.org.
You personally couldn't get me to run a home router directly off of a cable company modem. I run my home network behind a hardwire firewall. You should too. I use a pfSense SG-2220. You don't have to buy an appliance from there to have a pfSense firewall. It is open source software. You can buy an old rack mounted server on eBay for next to nothing with a Pentium Xeon chip and install pfSense which is free. You can use an old computer as well with 2 network cards. Only problem with that scenario is that you want an appliance that sips electricity, rather than gulps it. That's why an appliance with no fans and such is desirable. You can build your own as well with a mini ATX motherboard and CPU with passive heat sink. Throw a stick of RAM in and a hard drive and you're all set. Buying old on eBay is your least expensive route though.
Also I don't run stock firmware on my routers. I use Open Source Firmware which I believe to be more secure, faster, and just a better all around experience. They have plenty of added features that the stock firmware doesn't have. For example you can configure Ad Blockers, or set up a VPN server or client, or make a cool page where users have to log in like you see in hotels and such.
The Linksys WRT3200ACM claims to be OpenSource Ready and while that's kind of true, let me clue you in on something. Linksys is owned by Belkin and while they do support Open Source the Wifi Chips in this router are made by Marvel and their Open Source driver development is ages behind their proprietary drivers. The DD-WRT and OpenWRT forums are rife with problems with wifi right at the moment (APR 2017).
What's that mean for you? It means if you run DD-WRT or OpenWRT right at this moment you're going to likely experience wifi issues. Common problems reported are "IT WORKS AWESOME" then two days later you see "MY WIFI SPEED CHOKED DOWN TO NOTHING AND I HAD TO REBOOT THE ROUTER"
When I bought this routers cousin, the WRT1900ACS which I'm currently running the exact same scenario played out. It was about a year before the wifi drivers were good enough for daily usage. My WRT1900ACS is rock solid stable and has been for some time.
So I'm counting on Marvel to come through so the Open Source Firmware guys can incorporate those new drivers in their builds. So I opted to buy the WRT3200ACM at $119 knowing the problems will be resolved soon (hopefully).
But because I run behind a hardwire firewall it SHOULDN'T be an issue for me to run the Linksys Firmware for a bit until they get it resolved.
My home network is a bit more complicated than most as you can see. It's a conglomeration of hard wired ethernet and 2 wifi Access Points. Clients are not depicted. Thank goodness. The page isn't large enough :)
One of the best key features that no one knows about except super geeks is that there are two boot partitions. What that means is that your router comes with Linksys firmware and if you upgrade to DD-WRT Firmware that in reality BOTH FIRMWARES RESIDE ON YOUR SYSTEM. So let's say you muck up DDWRT real good or even you think you might have bricked the router you can turn it off on the switch on back, then turn it on three times until the lights come on, then turn off again. I think on the 4th boot it will revert to the other boot partition.
Or you telnet into the box and can run the following commands:
ubootenv get boot_part # this returns a number 1 or 2
ubootenv set boot_part 1 # this would set your partition to 1, change it to 2 for 2
ubootenv get boot_part # check it to make sure
reboot # restart to the partition you want to boot into.
One thing you don't want to do is update DDWRT from DDWRT because then it resides on both partitions. ONLY INSTALL OR UPDATE DDWRT FROM THE LINKSYS FIRMWARE. There is no DDWRT to Factory Firmware .............yet. The WRT1900ACS has one but the WRT3200ACM does not have a revert file yet.
It's not impossible to get it back but you end up using a TTL to serial converter and cracking open the router case. Not something you really want to do.
Anyway the WRT3200ACM came with the latest firmware (and oh by the way today Linksys announced there were 10 exploits that are unpatched found in their firmware)
The Linksys Stock Firmware is adequate and even has an OpenVPN setup in it which is quite easy. I found that things like Dynamic DNS are hidden or at the least not very intuitive to find. Whatever happened to the left hand link called "ADMINISTRATION"?
It isn't tremendously attractive but I managed to install a variant of OpenWRT firmware called LEDE. Great Open Source Project, very, very powerful firmware but not for the faint of heart. It's fairly geeky. But I'd say it's fairly secure as well. Power and geekiness doesn't always equal polished.